THE

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA

ELEVENTH EDITION

FIRST edition, published in three volumes, 1768—1771.

SECOND ten 1777—1784.

THIRD eighteen 1788—1797.

FOURTH twenty 1801 1810.

FIFTH twenty 1815—1817.

SIXTH twenty 1823—1824.

SEVENTH twenty-one 1830—1842.

EIGHTH twenty-two 1853 1860.

NINTH twenty-five 1875—1889.

TENTH ninth edition and eleven

supplementary volumes, 1902 1903.

ELEVENTH published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910 1911.

COPYRIGHT

in all countries subscribing to the Bern Convention

by THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS

of the UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

All rights reserved

THE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME X

EVANGELICAL CHURCH to FRANCIS JOSEPH

. Cambridge, England:

at the University Press

New York, 35 West 3 2nd Street 1910

•E3

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910,

by The Encyclopxdia Britannica Company

INITIALS USED IN VOLUME X. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL

CONTRIBUTORS,! WITH THE* HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

A. B. R. ALFRED BARTON RENDLE, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.t.S. [

Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. Author of Text Book on Classi- i Flower. fication of Flowering Plants ; &c. I

A. D. AUSTIN DOBSON, LL.D. f n.iHinir u»n

See the biographical article : DOBSON, H. AUSTIN. \ *' IDB' "

A. F. B. ALDRED FARRER BARKER, M.Sc. f .*

Professor of Textile Industries at Bradford Technical College. [

A. F. P. ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.HiST.Soc. f -,„, _. .

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls' 'rrar' Blsn°P» College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893--^ F°", Edward; 1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of Fox, Richard.

England under Protector Somerset', Henry VIII.', Life of Thomas Cranmer', &c.

A. G. MAJOR ARTHUR GEORGE FREDERICK GRIFFITHS (d. 1908). ("

H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate; -I Finger Prints. Secrets of the Prison House ; &c. [

A. Go.* REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A. J^' Basi1' Jacobus and

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester. JOnann,

iFamilists; Farel, G.; Flaeius.

A. H.-S. SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E. f Fars;

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. ~\ Firuzabad.

A. L. ANDREW LANG. f Fairy;

See the biographical article: LANG, ANDREW. 1 Family.

A. L. B. ALFRED LYS BALDRY. r

Art Critic of the Globe, 1893-1908. Author of Modern Mural Decoration and I p.,, biographies of Albert Moore, Sir H. von Herkomer, R.A., Sir J. E. Millais, P.R.A., 1 *orluny- Marcus Stone, R.A., and G. H. Boughton, R.A. [

A. H. ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S. f Falcon; Fieldfare; Finch.

See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED. \ Flycatcher; Fowl.

A. S. ARTHUR SMITHELLS, F.R.S. r

Professor of Chemistry in the University of Leeds. Author of Scientific Papers on -{ Flame. Flame and Spectrum Analysis.

A. M. C. AGNES MARY CLERKE. f

See the biographical article: CLERKE, A. M. \ Flamsteed.

A. W. ARTHUR WATSON. f , .

Secretary in the Academic Department, University of London. | Examinations (M part)

A. W. R. ALEXANDER WOOD RENTON, M.A., LL.B. r

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws J Fixtures; of England. \Flat.

A. W. W. ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD, D.Lrrr., LL.D. f Foote, Samuel;

See the biographical article : WARD, A. W. \ Ford, John.

C. El. SIR CHARLES NORTON EDGCUMBE ELIOT, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. f

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East Africa -j Finno-Ugrian. Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar; Consul-General for German East Africa, 1900-1904.

C. F. B. CHARLES FRANCIS BASTABLE, M.A., LL.D.

Regius Professor of Laws and Professor of Political Economy in the University of J _,. Dublin. Author of Public Finance; Commerce of Nations; Theory of International ) Finance. Trade; &c. [

C. F. C. C. F. CROSS, B.Sc. (Lond.), F.C.S., F.I.C. /

Analytical and Consulting Chemist. \

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

v

1979

vi INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

C. F. R. CHARLES FRANCIS RICHARDSON, A.M., PH.D. f

Professor of English at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, U.S.A. "I Fiske, John. Author of A Story of English Rhyme; A History of American Literature; &c. I

C. H. T.* CRAWFORD HOWELL TOY, A.M. f

See the biographical article: TOY, CRAWFORD HOWELL. \

C. J. CHARLES JOHNSON, M.A. ("

Clerk in H.M. Public Record Office. Joint Editor of the Domesday Survey for the ~] Exchequer (in part). Victoria County History: Norfolk. I

C. J, B. M. CHARLES JOHN BRUCE MARRIOTT, M.A. f Footbali. R ^ (i b ,\

Clare College, Cambridge. Secretary of the Rugby Football Union. I g^ (™ pa">-

C. J. N. F. CHARLES JAMES NICOL FLEMING. f Fonthaii. £>„„/,„ /;„ *„,<•>

H.M. Inspector of Schools, Scotch Education Department. \ F< tbaU- •"» (m partl

C. L. K. CHARLES LETHBRIDGE KINGSFORD, M.A., F.R.HisT.Soc., F.S.A. ( Fahvan.

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor •],, ^ ., ' of Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London. I Fastoll.

C. P. I. SlR COURTENAY PEREGRINE ILBERT, K.C.B., K. C.S.I., C.I.E.

Clerk of the House of Commons. Chairman of Statute Law Committee. Parlia-

mentary Counsel to the Treasury, 1 899-190 1 . Legal Member of Council of Governor- . General of India, 1882-1886; President, 1886. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The Government of India ; Legislative Method and Forms.

Evidence.

C. W. A. CHARLES WILLIAM ALCOCK (d. 1907). f -,„„-„„ . ,. /. A

Formerly Secretary of the Football Association, London. \ ^>0tb&\\: Association (in part).

D. H. DAVID HANNAY. f _. . _ n-«|. „. «,.,

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal \ First Ol June' Battle °r tne» Navy ; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c. [ Fox, Charles James.

D. Mn. REV. DUGALD MACFADYEN, M.A. f

Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Director of the London I Excommunication. Missionary Society. I

D. N. P. DIARMID NOEL PATON, M.D., F.R.C.P. (Edin.). f

Regius Professor of Physiology in the University of Glasgow. Formerly Super- intendent of Research Laboratory of Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh. 4 Fever. Biological Fellow of Edinburgh University, 1884. Author of Essentials of Human Physiology; &c.

D. S. M.* DAVID SAMUEL MARGOLIOUTH, M.A., D.Lrrr. f"

Laudian Professor of Arabic, Oxford. Fellow of New College. Author of Arabic J _ ., Papyri of the Bodleian Library; Mohammed and the Rise of Islam; Cairo, Jerusalem i fatimites. and Damascus. I

E. B. EDWARD BRECK, M.A., PH.D. f _ .

Formerly Foreign Correspondent of the New York Herald and the New York Times, i * .

Author of Fencing; Wilderness Pets; Sporting in Nova Scotia; &c. I Football: American (in part).

E. Ca. EGERTON CASTLE, M.A., F.S.A. f_ .

Trinity College. Cambridge. Author of Schools and Masters of Fence; &c. \

Ed. C.* THE HON. EDWARD EVAN CHARTERIS. f . •.

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. \ Falr (m Part>-

E. C. B. RT. REV. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, O.S.B., M.A., D.Lnr. f" Fontevrault;

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius," 4 Francis of Assisi, St; in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi. L Francis of Paola, St.

E. C. Q. EDMUND CROSBY QUIGGIN, M.A. f

Fellow and Lecturer in Modern Languages and Monro Lecturer in Celtic, -j Finn mac Cool. Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. [

E. D. R. LIEUT.-COLONEL EiiiLius C. DELME RADCLIFFE. f palconrv

Author of Falconry: Notes on the Falconidae used in India in Falconry. \ ' **

E. E. A. ERNEST E. AUSTEN. f

Assistant in Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. \ Flea.

E. E. H. REV. EDWARD EVERETT HALE. J E.v(,rpft

See the biographical article: HALE, E. E. ett>

f Ewalcl, Johannes; Fabliau; Fabre, Ferdinand; Feuillet;

E. G. EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D. I Finiand. ji,frllture-

See the biographical article :GossE, EDMUND. nterrt. Literature

FitzGerald, Edward; Flaubert; I Flemish Literature; Forssell.

E. H. P. EDWARD HENRY PALMER, M.A. f _ .

See the biographical article: PALMER, E. H. \ Firdousi (in part).

E. K. EDMUND KNECHT, PH.D., M.SC.TECH. (Manchester), F.I.C. f

Professor of Technological Chemistry, Manchester University. Head of Chemical Department, Municipal School of Technology, Manchester. Examiner in Dyeing, -s Finishing. City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of A Manual of Dyeing; &c. Editor of Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists.

E. M. Ha. ERNEST MAES HARVEY. f Exchange.

Partner in Messrs. Allen Harvey & Ross, Bullion Brokers, London.

INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

Vll

E.O.*

E. 0. S. E. Pr.

E. Re. E. Tn.

E. W. H.

F. C.C. F. G. P.

F.J.H.

F. J. W.

F. R. C. F.S. G.A.B.

G. A. Be.

G. B. A. G. C.L.

G.E.

G. F. Z. G, G. P.* G. P.

G. W. T.

EDMUND OWEN, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's_Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital,

Late Examiner 1 Fistula.

Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, in Surgery at the University of Cambridge, London and Durham.

Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.

Author of A

(

EDWIN OTHO SACHS, F.R.S. (Edin.), A.M.lNST.M.E. r

Chairman of the British Fire Prevention Committee. Vice-President, National J -,. A ,, ,. ,.

Fire Brigades Union. Vice-President, International Fire Service Council. Author 1 re Extinction.

of Fires and Public Entertainments ; &c.

EDGAR PRESTAGE. f

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature at the University of Manchester. Com- J Falcao; mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon 1 Ferreira. Royal Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society. I

ELISEE RECLUS.

See the biographical article: RECLUS, J. J. E.

Fire.

REV. ETHELRED LEONARD TAUNTON, (d. 1907). J Feckenham;

Author of Ttie English Black Monks of St Benedict ; History of the Jesuits in England. { Fisher, John.

ERNEST WILLIAM HOBSON, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. , F.R.A.S.

Fellow and Tutor in Mathematics, Christ's College, Cambridge, in Mathematics in the University.

Stokes Lecturer J Fourier's Series.

FREDERICK CORNWALLIS CONYBEARE, M.A., D.Tn. (Giessen).

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. - Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.

FREDERICK GYMER PARSONS, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.ANTHROP.INST.

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. Formerly Huntenan Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. I

FRANCIS JOHN HAVERFIELD, M.A., LL.D., F.S. A. r

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of J Brasenose College. Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907. Fellow of the British Academy. 1 * osse- Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c. [_ '

FREDERICK JOSEPH WALL, F.C.S.

Secretary to the Football Association.

FRANK R. CANA.

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.

FRANCIS STORR, M.A.

Editor of the Journal of Education, London.

Extreme Unction.

Eye: Anatomy.

j Football: Association (in part). France: Colonies.

Officier d'Academie, Paris.

-[ Fable.

GEORGE A. BOULENGER, D.Sc., PH.D., F.R.S.

In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British J Flat-fish. Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London.

GEORGE ANDREAS BERRY, M.B., F.R.C.S., F.R.S. (Edin.).

Hon. Surgeon Oculist to His Majesty in Scotland. Formerly Senior Ophthalmic

Surgeon, Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, and Lecturer on Ophthalmology in the Uni- J

versity of Edinburgh. Vice-President, Ophthalmological Society. Author of ] Eye: Diseases.

Diseases of the Eye; The Elements of Ophthalmoscopic Diagnosis; Subjective

Symptoms in Eye Diseases ; &c. [

GEORGE BURTON ADAMS, A.M., B.D., PH.D., LITT.D. r

Professor of History, Yale University. Editor of American Historical Review. \ .. Author of Civilization during the Middle Ages; Political History of England, 1066- " Feudalism. 1216 ; &c. [

GEORGE COLLINS LEVEY, C.M.G.

Member of Board of Advice to Agent-General of Victoria. Formerly Editor and Proprietor of the Melbourne Herald. Secretary, Colonial Committee of Royal Commission to Paris Exhibition, 1900. Secretary, Adelaide Exhibition, 1887. J Exhibition. Secretary, Royal Commission, Hobart Exhibition, 1894-1895. Secretary to Com- missioners for Victoria at the Exhibitions in London, Paris, Vienna, Philadelphia and Melbourne, 1873, 1876, 1878, 1880-1881.

REV. GEORGE EDMUNDSON, M.A., F.R.HiST.S.

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. Hon. Member, Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign Member, Netherlands Associa- tion of Literature.

GEORGE FREDERICK ZIMMER, A.M.lNST.C.E. Author of Mechanical Handling of Material.

GEORGE GRENVILLE PHILLIMORE, M.A., B.C.L.

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple.

GIFFORD PINCHOT, A.M., D.Sc., LL.D.

Professor of Forestry, Yale University. Formerly Chief Forester, U.S.A. President u-nrp<:tc and 1?nrp«trv of the National Conservation Association. Member of the Society of American J *°™sl Foresters, Royal English Arboricultural Society, &c. Author of The White Pine; United Slates. A Primer of Forestry ; &c.

REV. GRIFFITHS WHEELER THATCHER, M.A., B.D. f Fairuzabadl;

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old J Fakhr ud-Din Razi; Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. Farabr Farazdaq.

Flanders.

/ Flour and Flour Manufacture. Fishery, Law of.

vi INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

C. F. R. CHARLES FRANCIS RICHARDSON, A.M., PH.D. ("

Professor of English at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, U.S.A. ~\ Fiske, John. Author of A Story of English Rhyme; A History of American Literature; &c. I

C. H. T.* CRAWFORD HOWELL TOY, A.M. -fEzekiel.

See the biographical article: TOY, CRAWFORD HOWELL. \

C. 3. CHARLES JOHNSON, M.A. f

Clerk in H.M. Public Record Office. Joint Editor of the Domesday Survey for the *! Exchequer (in part). Victoria County History: Norfolk. I

C. J, B. M. CHARLES JOHN BRUCE MARRIOTT, M.A. / F00than- Ruebv (in tart)

Clare College, Cambridge. Secretary of the Rugby Football Union. I Ug0y (tn part)f

C. J. N. F. CHARLES JAMES NICOL FLEMING. f ir00tball- Ruobv (in •hurt)

H.M. Inspector of Schools, Scotch Education Department. I F( Kugt>y (tn part)'

C. L. K. CHARLES LETHBRIDGE KINGSFORD, M.A., F.R.HisT.Soc., F.S.A. f pai,van.

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor "i _ : ? ., ' of Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London. I **SIOH.

C. P. I. SIR COURTENAY PEREGRINE ILBERT, K.C.B., K.C.S.I., C.I.E.

Clerk of the House of Commons. Chairman of Statute Law Committee. Parlia-

mentary Counsel to the Treasury, 1899-1901. Legal Member of Council of Governor- General of India, 1882-1886; President, 1886. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The Government of India ; Legislative Method and Forms.

Evidence.

C. W. A. CHARLES WILLIAM ALCOCK (d. 1907). f rw*h«n. a f r *„ rt

Formerly Secretary of the Football Association, London. \ ••••« Association (in part).

L Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal \ First of June> Battle of the' Navy ; Life of Emilia Castelar ; &c. \ Fox, Charles James.

D. Mn. REV. DUGALD MACFADYEN, M.A. f

Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Director of the London -j Excommunication. Missionary Society. L

D. N. P. DIARMID NOEL PATON, M.D., F.R.C.P. (Edin.). f

Regius Professor of Physiology in the University of Glasgow. Formerly Super- intendent of Research Laboratory of Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, -j Fever. Biological Fellow of Edinburgh University, 1884. Author of Essentials of Human Physiology; &c.

D. S. M.* DAVID SAMUEL MARGOLIOUTH, M.A., D.LiTT. I"

Laudian Professor of Arabic, Oxford. Fellow of New College. Author of Arabic J _ .. Papyri of the Bodleian Library; Mohammed and the Rise of Islam; Cairo, Jerusalem i Fatimites. and Damascus. L

E. B. EDWARD BRECK, M.A., PH.D. f -, ., .

Formerly Foreign Correspondent of the New York Herald and the New York Times. 1 * lnf ' .

Author of Fencing; Wilderness Pets; Sporting in Nova Scotia; &c. I Football: American (in part).

E. Ca. EGERTON CASTLE, M.A., F.S.A.

Trinity College: Cambridge. Author of Schools and Masters of Fence; &c.

Ed. C.* THE HON. EDWARD EVAN CHARTERIS. J ».•-/• ,\

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. \ rair (tn Parl)-

E. C. B. RT. REV. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, O.S.B., M.A., D.LITT. f Fontevrault;

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius," 4 Francis of Assisi, St; in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi. L Francis Of Paola, St.

E. C. Q. EDMUND CROSBY QUIGGIN, M.A. f

Fellow and Lecturer in Modern Languages and Monro Lecturer in Celtic, -s Finn mac Cool. Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. [

E. D. R. LlEUT.-COLONEL EMILIUS C. DELME RADCLIFFE. f Falconrv>

Author of Falconry: Notes on the Falconidae used in India in Falconry. \

E. E. A. ERNEST E. AUSTEN. J"

Assistant in Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. \ Flea.

E. E. H. REV. EDWARD EVERETT HALE. J Fvftrptt

See the biographical article: HALE, E. E. ett'

f Ewald, Johannes; Fabliau; Fabre, Ferdinand; Feuillet; E. G. EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D. J r-inianrt. T:tern,urP.

See the biographical article: GOSSE, EDMUND. rltzGeL EdwaTd; Flaubert;

I Flemish Literature; Forssell.

E. H. P. EDWARD HENRY PALMER, M.A. f .. -

See the biographical article : PALMER, E. H. \ Firdousi (in part).

E. K. EDMUND KNECHT, PH.D., M.SC.TECH. (Manchester), F.I.C.

Professor of Technological Chemistry, Manchester University. Head of Chemical Department, Municipal School of Technology, Manchester. Examiner in Dyeing, -j Finishing. City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of A Manual of Dyeing; &c. Editor of Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists.

E. M. Ha. ERNEST MAES HARVEY. I" Exchange.

Partner in Messrs. Allen Harvey & Ross, Bullion Brokers, London. t

INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

Vll

E.O.*

E. 0. S. E. Pr.

E. Re. E. Tn.

E. W. H.

F.C.C. P. G. P.

u*

p. j. w.

F. R. C. F.S. G.A.B.

G. A. Be.

G. B. A. G.C.L.

EDMUND OWEN, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.

Consulting; Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital,

- ' Late Examiner -| Fistula.

Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, in Surgery at the University of Cambridge, London and Durham. Manual of A natomy for Senior Students.

Author of A

(

EDWIN OTHO SACHS, F.R.S. (Edin.), A.M.lNST.M.E. r

Chairman of the British Fire Prevention Committee. Vice-President, National j —. . p. !?»*:.,„*!„.,

Fire Brigades Union. Vice-President, International Fire Service Council. Author] 'uon>

of Fires and Public Entertainments ; &c. L

EDGAR PRESTAGE. f

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature at the University of Manchester. Com- J Falcao; mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon | Ferreira. Royal Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society. L

Fire.

ELISEE RECLUS.

See the biographical article: RECLUS, J. J. E.

REV. ETHELRED LEONARD TAUNTON, (d. 1907). / Feckenham;

Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict ; History of the Jesuits in England. {_ Fisher, John.

ERNEST WILLIAM HOBSON, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. , F.R.A.S.

Fellow and Tutor in Mathematics, Christ's College, Cambridge, in Mathematics in the University.

Stokes Lecturer J Fourier's Series.

Extreme Unction.

Eye: Anatomy.

j Football: Association (in part). France: Colonies.

G. E.

G. P. Z. G. G. P.* G. P.

G. W. T.

FREDERICK CORNWALLIS CONYBEARE, M.A., D.Tn. (Giessen).

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. - Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.

FREDERICK GYMER PARSONS, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.ANTHROP.INST.

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. Formerly Huntenan Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. L

FRANCIS JOHN HAVERFIELD, M.A., LL.D., F.S. A. r

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of J jfnee_ Brasenose College. Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907. Fellow of the British Academy. 1 *osse' Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c. [ "

FREDERICK JOSEPH WALL, F.C.S.

Secretary to the Football Association.

FRANK R. CANA.

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.

FRANCIS STORR, M.A. f

Editor of the Journal of Education, London. Officier d'Academie, Paris. ~|_ *aD'e-

GEORGE A. BOULENGER, D.Sc., PH.D., F.R.S. f

In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British -j Flat-flsh. Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London.

GEORGE ANDREAS BERRY, M.B., F.R.C.S., F.R.S. (Edin.).

Hon. Surgeon Oculist to His Majesty in Scotland. Formerly Senior Ophthalmic

Surgeon, Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, and Lecturer on Ophthalmology in the Uni- J

versity of Edinburgh. Vice-President, Ophthalmological Society. Author of j Eye : Diseases.

Diseases of the Eye; The Elements of Ophthalmoscopic Diagnosis; Subjective

Symptoms in Eye Diseases ; &c. L

GEORGE BURTON ADAMS, A.M., B.D., PH.D., Lnr.D. f

Professor of History, Yale University. Editor of American Historical Review. Author of Civilization during the Middle Ages; Political History of England, 1066- ' 1216; &c.

GEORGE COLLINS LEVEY, C.M.G.

Member of Board of Advice to Agent-General of Victoria. Formerly Editor and Proprietor of the Melbourne Herald. Secretary, Colonial Committee of Royal Commission to Paris Exhibition, 1900. Secretary, Adelaide Exhibition, 1887. . Secretary, Royal Commission, Hobart Exhibition, 1894-1895. Secretary to Com- missioners for Victoria at the Exhibitions in London, Paris, Vienna, Philadelphia and Melbourne, 1873, 1876, 1878, 1880-1881.

REV. GEORGE EDMUNDSON, M.A., F.R.Hisx.S. r

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. J _,, j Hon. Member, Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign Member, Netherlands Associa- | *lanQ ** tion of Literature.

Exhibition.

GEORGE FREDERICK ZIMMER, A.M.lNST.C.E. Author of Mechanical Handling of Material.

J Flour and Flour Manufacture.

GEORGE GRENVILLE PHILLIMORE, M.A., B.C.L.

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple.

J Fishery, Law of.

GIFFORD PINCHOT, A.M., D.Sc., LL.D. r

Professor of Forestry, Yale University. Formerly Chief Forester, U.S.A. of the National Conservation Association. Member of the Society of American Foresters, Royal English Arboricultural Society, &c. Author of The White Pine; I A Primer of Forestry; &c. [_

REV. GRIFFITHS WHEELER THATCHER, M.A., B.D. f Fairuzabadl;

Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old -| Fakhr ud-Din Razi;

President I Forests and Forestry:

United States.

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.

FarabI; Farazdaq.

viii INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

H. B. S. REV. HENRY BARCLAY SWETE, M.A., D.D., LITT.D. r

Regius Professor of Divinity, Cambridge University. Fellow of Gonville and Caius J

College, Cambridge. Fellow of King's College, London. Fellow of British Academy. 1 Fathers of the Church. Hon. Canon of Ely Cathedral. Author of The Holy Spirit in the New Testament; &c. (.

H. Ch. HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A. f

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the nth Edition •{ Forster. of the Encyclopaedic, Britannica ; Co-Editor of the loth edition. L

H. De. HIPPOLYTE DELEHAYE, S.J. f Fiacre Saint-

Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications: Analecta Bollandiana •{ -p.^ and Acta Sanctorum. \ Flo»an« Saint.

H. F. G. HANS FRIEDRICH GADOW, F.R.S., PH.D. (

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. 4 Flamingo. Author of " Amphibia and Reptiles," in the Cambridge Natural History.

H. L. S. H. LAWRENCE SWINBURNE (d. 1909). | Flag.

H. St. HENRY STURT, M.A. f Fechner;

Author of Idola Theatri ; The Idea of a Free Church ; Personal Idealism. \ Feuerbach, Lud wig A.

f Fitz Neal; H. W. C. D. HENRY WILLIAM CARLESS DAVIS, M.A. Fitz Peter, Geoffrey;

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, -j Fitz Stephen, William; 1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. p<jjz Xhedmar' Flambard'

1 Florence of Worcester. H. W. S. H. WICKHAM STEED. f

Correspondent of The Times at Vienna. Correspondent of The Times at Rome, -j Fabrizi. 1897-1902. I

I. A. ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A. f

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, J Exilareh; Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Litera- | Eybeschutz. lure; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages.

J. A. C. SIR JOSEPH ARCHER CROWE, K.C.M.G. I p k v

See the biographical article: CROWE, SIR JOSEPH A. \ J1'w*' v

J. A. H. JOHN ALLEN HOWE, B.Sc. f

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of -j France: Geology. The Geology of Building Stones. I

J. A. S. JOHN ADDINGTON SYMONDS, LL.D. J Ficino;

See the biographical article: SYMONDS, JOHN A. I Filelfo.

J. B.* JOSEPH BURTON. f Firebrick t:n ,,ar,\

Partner in Pilkington's Tile and Pottery Co., Clifton Junction, Manchester. \

J. B. P. JAMES BELL PETTIGREW, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.C.P. (Edin.) (1834-1908). f

Chandos Professor of Medicine and Anatomy, University of St Andrews, 1875-1 Flight and Flying (m part). 1908. Author of Animal Locomotion; &c. I

J. Bt. JAMES BARTLETT. f

Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., at King's] u-.,-.!.*: College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of 1 * ounaa»°ns' Junior Engineers. L

J. C. M. JAMES CLERK MAXWELL, LL.D. J Faraday.

See the biographical article: MAXWELL, JAMES CLERK. X

J. E. C. B. JOHN EDWARD COURTENAY BODLEY, M.A. f

Balliol College, Oxford. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Author-^ France: History, 1870-1910. of France ; The Coronation of Edward VII. ; &c. |_

J. E. P. W. JOHN EDWARD POWER WALLIS, M.A.

Puisne Judge, Madras. Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. Inns of Court •{ Extradition. Reader in Constitutional Law, 1892-1897. Formerly Editor of Stale Trials. I

J. F. St. JOHN FREDERICK STENNING, M.A. f

Dean and Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Aramaic, -i Exodus, Book 01. Lecturer in Divinity and Hebrew at Wadham College.

J. G. H. JOSEPH G. HORNER, A.M.I.MECH.E. f Forging;

Author of Plating and Boiler Making ; Practical Metal Turning ; &c. \_ Founding.

J. G. R. JOHN GEORGE ROBERTSON, M.A., PH.D. r

Professor of German at the University of London. Formerly Lecturer on the) ,

English Language, Strassburg University. Author of History of German Literature ; | Fouque, Baron. &c. I

J. H. P.* JOHN HUNGERFORD POLLEN, M.A. (d. 1908). r

Formerly Professor of Fine Arts in Catholic University of Dublin. Fellow of Merton College, Oxford. Cantor Lecturer, Society of Arts, 1885. Author of J Fan. Ancient and Modern Furniture and Woodwork; Ancient and Modern Gold and 1 Silversmith's Work; The Trajan Column; &c.

J. HI. R. JOHN HOLLAND ROSE, M.A., LITT.D.

Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. J _ hx Author of Life of Napoleon I. ; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European ] * Nations ; The Life of Pitt ; chapters in the Cambridge Modern History. |_

J. H. R. JOHN HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.). f Ferrers- Family

Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and-\ _-, _ •''

Pedigree; &c. [ *ltzgeraia. ramuy.

INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

IX

j.i.

J. K. L.

Francis I. of France.

Farragut; Fitzroy.

J. L. B.

J. Ma. J. M. S.

J. Pa.

J. P. E.

J. R. C. J. R. F.* J. R. J. J. J. S. Bl.

J. S. F. J. S. K.

J. T. Be.

K. S. L. D.* L. F. S. L. J.

JULES ISAAC. S

Professor of History at the Lycee of Lyons. I

SIR JOHN KNOX LAUGHTON, M.A., Lrrr.D.

Professor of Modern History, King's College, London. Secretary of the Navy Records Society. Served in the Baltic, 1854-1855; in China, 1856-1859. Mathe- matical and Naval Instructor, Royal Naval College, Portsmouth, 1866-1873;. Greenwich, 1873-1885. President, Royal Meteorological Society, 1882-1884. Honorary Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Fellow, King's College, London. Author of Physical Geography in its Relation to the Prevailing Winds and Currents; Studies in Naval History; Sea Fights and Adventures; &c.

JULIAN LEVETT BAKER, F.I.C.

Analytical and Consulting Chemist. Examiner in Brewing to the City and Guilds of London Institute, Department of Technology. Hon. Secretary of the Institute j of Brewing. Author of The Brewing Industry; &c.

JOHN MACDONALD. /Fair (in part).

JAMES MONTGOMERY STUART. / Fo c 1

Author of The History of Free Trade in Tuscany ; Reminiscences and Essays. 1 OSC010.

JAMES PATON, F.L.S.

Superintendent of Museums and Art Galleries of Corporation of Glasgow. Assistant in Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh, 1861-1876. President of Museums - Association of United Kingdom, 1896. Editor and part-author of Scottish National Memorials, 1890.

JEAN PAUL HIPPOLYTE EMMANUEL ADHEMAR ESMEIN.

Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours elementaire d'histoire du droit fran$ais; &c. L

JOSEPH ROGERSON COTTER, M.A. f

Assistant to the Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy, Trinity College, •< Fluorescence. Dublin. Editor of 2nd edition of Preston's Theory of Heat. I

JOSEPH R. FISHER.

Editor of the Northern Whig, Belfast. the Press ; &c.

Feather (in part).

France: Law and Institutions.

Author of Finland and the Tsars; Law of 4 Finland.

Fireworks: History.

Britannica. Joint Editor of the) Fasting;

Critical History of the Christian 1 Feasts and Festivals.

JULIAN ROBERT JOHN JOCELYN.

Colonel, R.A. Formerly Commandant, Ordnance College; Member of Ordnance Committee ; Commandant, Schools of Gunnery.

REV. JOHN SUTHERLAND BLACK, M.A., LL.D.

Assistant Editor, o.th edition, Encyclopaedia Encyclopaedia Biblica. Translated Ritschl's Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation.

JOHN SMITH FLETT, D.Sc., F.G.S. c

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edin- J Felsite; burgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby j pijnt Medallist of the Geological Society of London.

JOHN SCOTT KELTIE, LL.D., F.S.S., F.S.A. (Scot.). r

Secretary, Royal Geographical Society. Knight of Swedish Order of North Star. Finland ( Commander of the Norwegian Order of St Olaf. Hon. Member, Geographical^ *}. ' Societies of Paris, Berlin, Rome, &c. Editor of Statesman's Year Book. Editor of * miners. the Geographical Journal. I

JOHN T. BEALBY. r

Joint Author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical J. Fens;

Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. [ Ferghana (in part).

L. V.*

KATHLEEN SCHLESINGER.

Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra.

LOUIS DUCHESNE.

See the biographical article: DUCHESNE, L. M. O.

LESLIE FREDERIC SCOTT, M.A., K.C. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple.

LlEUT.-COLONEL LOUIS CHARLES JACKSON, R.E., C.M.G.

Assistant Director of Fortifications and Works, War Office. Formerly Instructor in Fortification, R.M.A., Woolwich. Instructor in Fortification and Military Engineering, School of Military Engineering, Chatham

LUIGI VILLARI.

Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Dept.). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in east of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Philadelphia, 1907; Boston, U.S.A., 1907-1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; Fire and Sword in the Caucasus ; &c.

/Fiddle; Fife; Flageolet; \Flute (in part).

Formosus.

Factor.

' Fortification and Siegecraft.

I

Faliero; Fanti, Manfredo; Farini, Luigi Carlo; Farnese: Family; Ferdinand I. and IV. of Naples; Ferdinand II. of the Two

Sicilies;

Fiesco; Filangieri, C.; Florence; Foscari; Fossombroni; Francis II. of the Two

Sicilies; Francis IV. and V. of Modena.

Folklore.

x INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

BL Ha. MARCUS HARTOG, M.A., D.Sc., F.L.S. r

Professor of Zoology, University College, Cork. Author of " Protozoa," in Cam- -{ bridge Natural History; and papers for various scientific journals.

N. W. T. NORTHCOTE WHITBRIDGE THOMAS, M.A. f Faith Healing-

Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the] °'

Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference ; Kinship and 1 Marriage in Australia ; &c. [_

0. H.* OTTO HEHNER, F.I.C., F.C.S. r

Public Analyst. Formerly President of Society of Public Analysts. Vice-President J Food Preservation of Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland. Author of works on Butter | Analysis; Alcohol Tables; &c. I

0. M. DAVID ORME MASSON, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. f

Professor of Chemistry, Melbourne University. Author of papers on chemistry in -I Fireworks: Modern. the transactions of various learned societies. [

P. A. PAUL DANIEL ALPHANDERY. r

Professor of the History of Dogma, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne, J _.

Paris. Author of Les Idees morales chez les heterodoxes latines au debut du XIII' 1 F lageliants.

siecle. [

P. A. K. PRINCE PETER ALEXEIVITCH KROPOTKIN. / Ferghana (in part) ;

See the biographical article: KROPOTKIN, P. A. I Finland (in part).

P.C.Y. PHILIP CHESNEY YORKE, M.A. f Falkland; Fanshaw;

Magdalen College, Oxford. 1 Fawkes, Guy; Fell, John;

\ Fortescue, Sir John.

P. C. M. PETER CHALMERS MITCHELL, F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D.

Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Com-

parative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1881-1891. J Evolution

Examiner in Zoology to the University of London, 1903. Author of Outlines of

Biology; &c. [

P. G. K. PAUL GEORGE KONODY. r

Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of The Artist J Florenzo di Lorenzo; Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; &c. I Fragonard.

P. J. H. PHILIP JOSEPH HARTOG, M.A., L. is Sc. (Paris). r

Academic Registrar of the University of London. Author of The Writing of English, I. . t, ,. A and articles in the Special Reports on educational subjects of the Board of Edu- 1 Examinations (in part). cation.

P. W. PAUL WIRIATH. f

Director of the Ecole Superieure Pratique de Commerce et d'Industrie, Paris. \ France: History to 1870.

R. Ad. ROBERT ADAMSON, LL.D. C Fichte;

See the biographical article: ADAMSON, R. "1 Fourier, F. C. M.

R. A. S. M. ROBERT ALEXANDER STEWART MACALISTER, M.A., F.S.A. f

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Ex- -I Font. ploration Fund.

R. H. C. REV. ROBERT HENRY CHARLES, M.A., D.D., D.LITT. (Oxon.). r

Grinfield Lecturer and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford. Fellow of the British FIM- Ti,W /,^/y Tf~,lrn, Academy. Formerly Senior Moderator of Trinity College, Dublin. Author and 1 ' , , am founlt Editor of Book of Enoch; Book of Jubilees; Apocalypse of Baruch; Assumption of DOORS of. Moses ; Ascension of Isaiah ; Testaments of the XII. Patriarchs ; &c. I

R. J. M. RONALD JOHN MCNEILL, M.A. f Fenians;

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James's -\ Fitzgerald, Lord Edward; Gazette, London. ^ Flood, Henry.

R. L.* RICHARD LYDEKKER, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. r

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of J Flying-Squirrel; Catalogue of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer] Fox. of all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c.

R. N. B. ROBERT NISBET BAIN (d. 1909).

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: the 17™ , rnnnt= w«n Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1900; The First Romanovs, ' '

1613-1725 ; Slavonic Europe : the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1460 to 1706; &c.

R. Po. RENE POUPARDIN, D. is L. r

Secretary of the Ecole des Charles. Honorary Librarian at the Bibliotheque 1 Nationale, Paris. Author of Le Royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens; Recueil ) des chartes de Saint-Germain ; &c.

R. P. S. R. PHENE SPIERS, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.

Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past

President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, J Flute: Architecture.

London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's

History of Architecture. . Author of Architecture: East and West; &c.

R. S. C. ROBERT SEYMOUR CONWAY, M.A., D.LITT. (Cantab.). f

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. I _ .. . Formerly Professor of Latin in University College. Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville 1 *allscl' and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects. I

R. Tr. ROLAND TRUSLOVE, M.A. f

Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Fellow, Dean and Lecturer in Classics -J France: Statistics. at Worcester College, Oxford.

INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

XI

S. A. C. S.tJ.

stc.

S. E. B.

S. E. S.-R. T. A. I. T. As.

T. Ba. T. H. H.*

T. K. C. T.Se.

T. Wo. V. M.

W. A. B. C.

W. A. P. W. B.* W. Ca. W. Ga.

W.He. W. M. R.

STANLEY ARTHUR COOK, M.A. j"

Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonyille and Caius College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew and J Exodus, The; Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscrip-} p... an|j wBi,ornjau Rnnke nf tions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testa- Ezra and lenemian> Bo°KS Ol ment History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.

SIDNEY COLVIN, LL.D.

See the biographical article : COLVIN, S.

VISCOUNT ST CYRES.

See the biographical article: IDDESLEIGH, IST EARL OF

HON. SIMEON EBEN BALDWIN, M.A., LL.D.

Professor of Constitutional and Private International Law in Yale University. Director of the Bureau of Comparative Law of the American Bar Association. Formerly Chief Justice of Connecticut. Author of Modern Political Institutions; American Railroad Law; &c.

STEPHEN EDWARD SPRING-RICE, M.A., C.B. (1856-1902).

Formerly Principal Clerk, H.M. Treasury, and Auditor of the Civil List. Fellow of - Trinity College, Cambridge.

THOMAS ALLAN INGRAM, M.A., LL.D. Trinity College, Dublin.

/ Fine Arts; Finiguerra;

I Flaxman.

\ Fenelon.

Extradition: U.S.A.

Exchequer (in part).

•I Explosives: Law.

THOMAS ASHBY, M.A., D.LITT. (Oxon.), F.S.A.

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Corresponding Member of the Imperial" German Archaeological Institute. Author of the Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna; &c.

Faesulae; Falerii; Falerio; Fanum Fortunae; Ferentino; Fermo; Flaminia Via; Florence: Early History: . Fondi; Fonni; Forum Appiu

SIR THOMAS BARCLAY, M.P.

Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of J Exterritoriality the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of ] International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910. I

-f.

j Eve (in part).

SIR THOMAS HUNGERFORD HOLDICH, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc., F.R.G.S.

Colonel in the Royal Engineers. Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892- .

1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S., London, 1887. H.M. Commissioner for the •{ Everest, Mount

Persia-Beluch Boundary, 1896. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Gates of

India ; &c. L

REV. THOMAS KELLY CHEYNE, D.D.

See the biographical article : CHEYNE, T. K.

THOMAS SECCOMBE, MA. ["

Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Formerly Assistant Editor of Dictionary of J Fawceit, Henry. National Biography, 1891-1901. Joint-author of The Bookman History of English Literature. Author of The Age of Johnson ; &c.

THOMAS WOODHOUSE. r

Head of Weaving and Textile Designing Department, Technical College, Dundee. ~\ '

VICTOR CHARLES MAHILLON. r

Principal of the Conservatoire Royal deMusique at Brussels. Chevalier of the Legion J Flute (in part). of Honour.

REV. WILLIAM AUGUSTUS BREVOORT COOLIDGE, M.A., F.R.G S., Ph.D. (Bern), r Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's! College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in] Nature and in History ; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1889. L

WALTER ALISON PHILLIPS, M.A. f Excellency Faust-

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, •{ w i, -om

Flax.

Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.

WILLIAM BURTON, M.A., F.C.S.

Chairman, Joint Committee of Pottery Manufacturers of Great Britain. English Stoneware and Earthenware ; &c.

•v

Author of -j Firebrick (in part).

WALTER CAMP, A.M.

Member of Yale University Council. and Figures; &c.

Author of American Football; Football Facts -I Football: American (in part).

WALTER GARSTANG, M.A., D.Sc.

Professor of Zoology at the University of Leeds. Scientific Adviser to H.M. Delegates on the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 1901-1907.-; Fisheries, Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Author of The Races and Migrations of the Mackerel ; The Impoverishment of the Sea ; &c.

WALTER HEPWORTH.

Formerly Commissioner of the Council of Education, Science and Art Department, - South Kensington.

WILLIAM MICHAEL ROSSETTI.

See the biographical article : ROSSETTI, DANTE G.

Fool.

Ferrari, Gaudenzio; Fielding, Copley; Franceschi, Piero; Francia.

Xll W. P. P.

W. N. S.

W. P. R.

W. R. S. W. R. E. H.

W. Sch. W. W. F.* W. W. R.*

INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

WILLIAM PLANE PYCRAFT, F.Z.S.

Assistant in the Zoological Department, British Museum. Formerly Assistant . Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Oxford. Vice-President of the Selborne Society. Author of A History of Birds ; &c.

WILLIAM NAPIER SHAW, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S.

Director of the Meteorological Office. Reader in Meteorology in the University of London. President of Permanent