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THE

0 V - .J

JOURNAL

OF THE

Bombay Natural History Society

INDEX AND TITLE PAGE

v.. sept mi *j

VOL. XXX V.

PARTS 3 & 4

MADRAS Printed at the Diocesan Press

1926

£1) b >4f

THE

JOURNAL

OF THE

Bombay Natural History Society

EDITED BY

SIR REGINALD A. SPENCE, KT., F.Z.S., P. M. D. SANDERSON, F.Z0S., and S. H. PRATER, C.M.Z.S.

VOL. XXX.

Parts 3 & 4.

Containing 44 Black and White Plates, 29 Text- figures

and a Map.

Date of Publication-

Part III. (Pages 509 to 718) ... 30th June 1925.

IV. ( 719 to 927) ... 15th December 1925

LONDON AGENTS

DULAU & Co., Ltd., 34—36, Margaret Street, Cavendish Square, W.

PRINTED AT THE DIOCESAN PRESS, MADRAS-

CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXX. No. 3.

Page

The Mammals and Birds of Kashmir and the Adjacent Hill Provinces. Part IV. {With a plate and 11 text

figures.) By Col. A. E. Ward 509

Bombay Natural History Society's Mammal Survey of

India, Burma and Ceylon. Report No. 37 (a), Nepal.

By T. B. Fry 525

Early Stages in the Development of some Fresh

Water Fishes in the Punjab. (With 3 plates) By M.

Hamid Khan, m.sc., f.r.m.s. 531

The Cremastogaster Ant. {With a plate.) By JV.ajor

R. W. G. Hingston, i.m.s. 541

Some New Alpine Grasshoppers of the Genus

Conophyma Zub., from Central Asia. By B. P. Uvarov,

F.E.S. 551

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Part

XXXIV. {With a text figure.) By T. R. Bell, c.i.e.,

i.f.s. (Retd.) 561

Two New Burmese Snakes. {With a plate.) By Col. F.

Wall, i.m.s., etc. ...... 587

Notes on Charophytes from Gonda, U. P. {With 5 plates.)

By G. O. Allen, I.C.S. 589

Bird's Nesting with a Camera in India. Part IV. {With

6 plates.) By Capt. R. S. P. Bates.... 600

The Identification of Indian Butterflies. Part VII.

{With plates.) By Col. W. H. Evans, d.s.o., f.z.s., f.e.s. 610 Notes and Description of Indian Fishes. Part III. By

H. W. Fowler 640

An Encounter with a Fighting Tiger. {With a photo.)

By Col. R. W. Burton, i.A. (Retd.) 652

Indian Dragonflies. Part XXI. {With 1 plate and 1 text

figure) By Major F. C. Fraser, i.m.s., f.e.s 657

Notes on the Birds of the Sikkim Himalayas. Part

VI. {With a plate.) By Herbert Stevens, m.b.o.u. ...... 664

iv CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXX.

Page

Reviews— In the Higher Himalayas. By H. Whistler,

f.z.s. 686

A General Text Book of Entomology. By

A. D. Imms 687

Editorial 689

Miscellaneous Notes :

I. Breeding season of the Nilgiri Langur. By Rev.

C. Leigh, s.j. 691

II. Wild Dogs and Jungle Tragedies. By R. C.

Morris 691

III. 1 Wild Animals of Central India.' By R. C.

Morris (with a Note by A. A. Dunbar Brander) 694

IV. A Black Jackal. By M. S. Tuggerse 698

V. The Record Sind Wild Goat. (Capra hircus

blythi.) {With a plate) By R. L. McCulloch... 699 VI. The Allied Grosbeak (Perrisospiza a/finis Blyth).

By H. Whistler, f.l.s., f.z.s. 701

VII. On the breeding of the Indian Tree Pipit (Anlhus

hodgsoni) in Kulu. By H. Whistler, f.l.s., f.z.s. 701

VIII. The Cotton Teal. By Sir Harcourt Butler 702

IX. Occurrence of the Scaup Duck (Fuligula marila)

in Northern India. By S. H. Prater, c.m.z.s.... 703 X. The length attained by and the habits of the Ghavial (G. gangeticus.) By Major C. R. S.

Pitman 703

XI. Boa Constrictor vs. Alligator. {With a photo.) By

Editors., 704

XII. Tiger killed by a Cobra. (With a photo.) By

Editors 705

XIII. Record of a death from bite of the Hamadryad or

King Cobra (Naia hanna.) By C. Theobald, f.z.s. 706

XIV. Recovery from the bite of Echis carinata. By

Capt. H. J. Rice, i.m.s..... 706

XV. Viper and White Throat. By B. B. Osmaston,

i.f.s. (Retd.) m 707

XVI. A List of Fishes obtained in the Saran District, Bihar, chiefly from the Ghogra River, near the town of Chapra and in its vicinity. By E. A. D'Abreu, f.z.s. , 70?

CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXX. v

Page

XVII. The Occurrence of the Spiny-Eel. By E. A.

D'Abreu, f.z.s. 711

XVIII. Formula for estimating weight of Mahseer. By

Major W. B. Trevenen 711

XIX. The Ceylon Races of Terias bla?ida Bdv., and

sari, Horsf. By H. T. G. Watkins 714

Proceedings 715

No. 4.

The Mammals and Birds of Kashmir and the Adjacent Hill Provinces. Part V. {With a plate and 3 text figtcres.) By Colonel A. E. Ward 719

Birds of the Persian Gulf Islands. {With 4- plates and a Map.) By Dr. C. B. Ticehurst, m.a., m.r.c.s., m.b.o.u., Major-General Sir Percy Z. Cox, g.c.m.g., g.c.i.e., k.c.s.i., m.b.o.u. and Major R. E. Cheesman, m.b.o.u., f.r.g.s. 725

New Snake from Burma. By Col. F. Wall, c.m.g., k.h.s. 734 An Oriental Hunting Wasp {Sphex lobatus.) By Major

R. W. G. Hingston, i.m.s. 735

An Account of Some Fresh Water Ciliates from

Lahore. {With 2 plates.) By Amar Nath Gulati, m.s.c. 744 The Identification of Indian Butterflies. Part VIII.

{With a plate.) By Col. W. H. Evans, d.s.o., f.z.s., f.e.s. 756 On the Antiquity and the Therapeutic Uses of the

Indian Spikenard. {With a plate.) By S. C. Sinha,

m.a. 777

Two New Thysanoptera from South India. {With a

plate a?id a text figure.) By T. V. Ramakrishna Iyer ... 788 Birds nesting with a Camera in India. Part V. {With

5 plates.) By Capt. R. S. P. Bates 793

Notes on Snakes collected in Burma in 1924. By Col.

F. Wall, c.m.g., k.h.s , 805

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Part

XXXV. By T. R. Bell, c.i.e., i.f.s. (Retd.) , 822

A Few Days after Urial in the Punjab. By Lt.-Col.

R. W. Burton, la. (Retd.) , 838

Indian Dragonflies. Part XXII. {With a plate and 10 text

figures.) By Major F. C. Fraser, i.m.s., f.e.s 846

Vi

CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXX.

Page

Notes on a Nest of the Common Indian Hornet. {With

a plate.) By B. Chopra, d.sc. , 858

An Annotated List of the Thysanoptera known

from India and Ceylon. By T. V. Ramakrishna Iyer. 861

Notes on the Birds of Sikkim Himalayas. Part VII (Conclusion) (With 2 plates.) By Herbert Stevens, m.b.o.u 872

Reviews : The Protection of Birds. By Lewis R. W.

Loyd 894

A Monograph of the Birds of Prey. Part I.

By H. Kirke Swann, f.z.s., m.b.o.u 894

Nature at the Desert's Edge. By R. W. G.

Hingston, m.c, m.b., i.m.s 896

Familiar Flowering Trees in India. By

Ida Colthurst 898

Obituaries :— Prof. H. M. Maxwell Lefroy ; Prof. F.

Hallberg ; Mr. L. J. Sedgwick, i.c.s 899

Editorial 902

Miscellaneous Notes :

I. The Slow Loris. By Major J. D. Scale 904

II. The Occurrence of Hodgson's Bat. By E. A.

D'Abreu, f.z.s 905

III. The 'Sambhar Call' of the Tiger. By A. A.

Dunbar Brander 905

IV. Tiger-netting in Assam. By L. J. Delanougerede,

d.f.o 907

V. Panther with abnormal feet. By Maharaj Kumar

Shree Vijayarajji 909

VI. Abnormal Clavicle Bones of a Tiger. By Lt.-Col.

W. G. Hutchinson 910

VII. Panther and Wild Dogs. By Lt.-Col. R. W.

Burton 910

VIII. A Hybrid Black Buck and Chinkara. ( With a photo.)

By Maharaj Kumar Sri Sadul Singhji Bahadur. 911 IX. Duel between two Bull Elephants. By H. F.

Mooney, i.f.s 912

X. An Elephant Trap. By C. G. Seligman 912

XI. Crow's Nests and Electric Cables. By S. H.

Prater, c.m.z.s 913

CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXX. vii

Page

XII. Predatory Habits of the Magpie. By Lt.-Col.

F. M. Bailey 914

XIII. Fresh Light on the Identity of the ' Devil Bird.'

By Editors .. 914

XIV. Hawks and Swallows. By Major J. D. Scales,

D.S.O., o.b.e 915

XV. An Albino Hoopoe. (With a photo.) By Mrs.

H. K. Rudkin 916

XVI. Occurrence of the Nepal Kalij Pheasant at

Mussoorie. By F. Field 917

XVII. Breeding of the Painted Sand-Grouse in the Punjab Salt Range. By H. W. Waite, f.z.s., m.b.o.u 917

XVIII. The Nesting of the Little Green Heron in the District of 24-Pergannas. {With a photo.) By Satya Churn Law 918

XIX. Weights of Woodcock in Shillong. By Lt.-Col.

G. R. Row, i.a. (Retd.) 919

XX. Records with Snipe. By Udaji Rao Puar 920

XXI. The Snake Natrix venningi( Venning 's Keelback.)

By Lt.-Col. F. Wall 921

XXII. The Common ' Fire Fishes 9 of Madras. By S. T.

Moses 921

XXIII. A Run of Fish on the Streams falling into the

Yamdrok Tso. By Lt.-Col. F. M. Bailey 922

XXIV. Extraordinary Display of ' Leucodice soracte ' of

the Genus « Aporia.' (With a plate.) By

R. Y. A. Morshead 923

XXV. Captosoma oste?is?im, Dist. and its enemy Sy?iia melanaria, Muls. By T. V. Subramanyam,

b.a 924

Proceedings , 926

2

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

VOLUME XXX

Page

Aiyar, T. V. Ramakrishna ; Two new Thysanoptera from South India {with 1 plate and 1

text figure) 788

; An annotated List

of the Thysanoptera known from India and Ceylon ... 861

Allen, G. O., I.C.S. ; Notes on Charophytes from Gonda, U. P.

{with 5 plates) 589

Bahadur, Maharaj Kumar Sri Sadul Singhji ; A Hybrid Black Buck {A. cervicapra) and chinkara (G. bennetti) {with

a photo) 911

Bailey, Lt.-Col. F. M. ; Preda- tory Habits of the Magpie ... 914

A run of Fish on the

streams falling into the Yam-

drok Tso 922

Bates, Capt. R, S. P. ; Birds nesting with a camera in India- Part IV. {with 6 plates) ... 600 PartV. {with 5 plates) ... 793 Bell, T. R., C. I. E., I. F. S. (Retd.) ; The Common Butter- flies of the plains of India- Part XXXIV {with 1 text

figure) 561

Part XXXV 822

Bombay Natural History Society's Mammal Survey

No. 37(a) Nepal 525

Brander, A. Dunbar ; Com- ments on Wild Animals of

Central India ... 696

; The

Sambhar Call of Tiger ... 905

Burton, Lt.-Col. R. W., I. A. (Retd.) ; An encounter with a fighting Tiger {with a photo) ... 652

Page

Burton, Lt.-Col. R. W., I. A.

(Retd.) Panther and Wild Dogs. 910 Butler, Harcourt ; The Cotton

Teal 702

Cheesman, Major R. E., see

Ticehurst, Dr. C. B. Chopra, B. , D.Sc. ; Note on a nest of the Common Indian Hornet {Vespa cincta, Fabr.) {with a

plate) 858

Cox, Major-General Sir Percy

Z. ; see Ticehurst, Dr. C. B. D'Abreu, E. A,, F.Z.S. A List of Fish obtained in the Saran District, Behar, chiefly from the Ghogra River, near the town of Chapra and in its

vicinity 707

; Formula for esti- mating weight of Mahseer ... 711

; The occurrence of

Hodgson's Bat {Myotis formo- sus) in the Central Provinces ... 905 Delanougerede, L. J., D.F.O.; Tiger-netting in Assam {with 1 plate and 2 text figures) ... 907 Editors ; Boa Constrictor vs. Alligator {with a text figure) ... 704

; Tiger killed by a

Cobra {with a text figure) ... 705

; Fresh light on the

identity of the 1 Devil Bird ' ... 914

Evans, Colonel W. H., D.S.O F.Z.S. , F.E.S. ; The Identifi- cation of Indian Butterflies- Part VII {with 1 plate) ... 610 Part VIII {with 1 plate) ... 756 Field, F. ; Occurrence of the Nepal Kalij Pheasant {G. leu- comelanus) at Mussoorie ... 917

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Page

Fowler, Henry W. ; Notes and Descriptions of Indian Fishes- Part III 640

Fraser, Major F. C, I.M.S., F.E.S. ; Indian Dragonflies, Part XXI {with 1 plate and 1

text figure) ... 657

; Indian Dragonflies

{with 1 plate and 3 text figures) . 846 Fry, T. B., see Bombay Natural History Society's Mammal Sur- vey of India, Burmah and

Ceylon 525

Gulati, Amar Nath, M.Sc. ; An account of some Fresh- Water Ciliates from Lahore ... 744 Hingston, Major R. W. G., I. M.S. ; The Cremastogaster

Ant {with a plate) 541

; An Oriental Hunt- ing Wasp. {Sphex lobatus)

Part I ... 735

Hutchinson, Lt.-Col. W. G. ; Abnormal Clavicle Bones of a

Tiger 910

Khan, M. Hamid, M. Sc., F.R.M.S. ; Early Stages in the Development of some Fresh- water Fishes in the Punjab

{with 3 plates) 531

Law, Satya Churn ; The nest- ing of the Little Green Heron {Butorides striatus javanica) in the District of 24-Pergannas

{with a photo) 918

Leigh, C. S. J. ; Rreeding season

of the Nilgiri Langur ... 691 McCullouh, R. L. ; A Record

Sind Wild Goat {with 1 plate). 699 Mooney, H. F., I.F.S. ; Duel

between two Bull Elephants ... 912 Moore, J. Percy ; Wanted : In- formation on Indian Leeches ... 925 Morris, R. C. ; Wild Dogs and

Jungle Tragedies 691

; Wild Animals of

Central India 694

Morshead, R. Y. A. ; Extra- ordinary Display of 4 Leucodice soracte ' of the genus {A porta) {with a plate) 923

Page

Moses, S. T. ; Two Common * Fire-Fishes ' of Madras {Pterois russellii, Van Hass.) and {P. volitans, Linn.) A preli- minary note on their variations. 921 Osmaston, B. B., I.F.S. (Retd.) ;

Viper and White-throat ...707 Pitman, Major C. R. S. ; The length attained by and the

habits of the Gahrial 703

Prater.. S. H., C.M.Z.S.; Occur- rence of the Scaup Duck {Fuligula marila) in Northern

India 703

; Crows Nests and

Electric Cables 913

Puar, Udaji Rao; Records

with Snipe 920

Rice, Capt. H. J., I. M.S. ; Re- covery from the bite of Echis

carinata 706

Row, Lt.-Col. T. A. (Retd.) ; Weights of Woodcock in

Shillong 919

Rudkin, Mrs. H. K. ; An Albino Hoopoe {Upupa epops indica)

{with a photo) 916

Scale, Major J. D. ; The Slow

Loris ( Nycticebus coucang) ... 904 Scales, Major J. D., D.S.O.,

O.B.E.; Hawks and Swallows. 915 Seligman, C. G. ; An Elephant

Trap 912

Sinha, S. C. On the Antiquity and the Therapeutic uses of the Indian Spikenard {with a

plate) 777

Stevens, Herbert, M.B.O.U.; Notes on the Birds of the Sikkim Himalayas- Part VI. {with 2 plates) ... 664 Part VII {conclusion) {with 2

plates) 872

Subramanyam, T. V., B.A. ; Coptosoma oslensum Dist. and its enemy Synid melana- ria, Muls. {with 1 plate) ... 924 Theobald, Charles, F.Z.S., Record of a death from a bite of the Hamadryad or King Cobra {Naia hanna) 706

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Page

Ticehurst, Dr. C. B., M.R.C.S., M. B.O.U., Cox, Major-General Sir Percy, Z., G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., K.C.S.I, M.B.O.U., and Cheesman, Major, R. E., M.B.O.U. Birds of the Persian Gulf Islands (with 4 plates and

a map) 725

Tuggerse, M. S.; Black Jackal. 698 Uvarov, B. P., F.E.S., Some new Alpine Grasshoppers of the genus Conophyma, Zub. from Central Asia 551

VlJAYARAJJl, MAHARAJ KUMAR

Shree ; Panther with abnormal feet 909

Waite, H.W., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U.; Breeding of the Painted Sand- Grouse (Pterocles indicus) in the Panjab Salt Range 917

Wall, Colonel F., C.M.G., K.H.S., I. M.S. Two new Burmese Snakes (with 1 plate). 587

Page

Wall, Colonel F., C.M.G., K.H.S., I. M.S., A new snake

from Burma 734

; Notes on Snakes

collected in Burma in 1924 ... 805

; The Snake Natrix

venningi ( Venning 's Keel- back) a correction 921

Ward, Col. A. E. ; The Mam- mals and Birds of Kashmir and adjacent Hill Provinces- Part IV (with 1 plate and 11

text figures) 509

Part V (with 1 plate and 3

text figures) 719

Watkins, H. T. G.; The Ceylon races of Terias blanda, Bdv.,

and sari, Horsf 714

Whistler, Hugh, F. Z. S.; The allied Grosbeak (Perissospiza

af finis, Blyth) 700

; On the Breeding of

the Indian Tree Pipit (Anthus hodgsoni) in Kulu 701

LIST OF PLATES

VOLUME XXX No. 3

Page

The Mammals and Birds of Kashmir and the adjacent Hill Provinces- Tibetan Antelope {Panthalops hodgsoni) .. ... ... 509

Early Stages in the Development of some Fresh Water Fishes in the Punjab- Plate l—Ophiocephalus marulius ... ... ... 532

Plate ll—Wallago attu ... ... ... ... 533

Plate III— Labeo gonitis ... ... ... ... 536

The Cremastogaster Ant (C. auberti) ... ... ... ... 541

Two New Burmese Snakes—

(A) Natrix nigriventer ... ... ... ... 587

(B) Matrix gilhodesi ... ... ... ... ... 587

Charophytes from Gonda. U.P.—

Plate I Fig. 1. Chara brachypus ... ... ... 590

Fig. 2. Triplostichons ... ... ... ... 590

Fig. 3. Diplostichous ... ... ... ... 590

Plate II— Fig. 1. Nitella amminata ... ... ... 596

Fig. 2. ,, mirabilis ... ... ... 596

Plate III— Chara brannii ... ... ... ... 597

Plate IV— Chara wallichii ... ... ... ... 598

Plate V— Chart ... ... ... ... ... 599

Birds Nesting with a Camera in India- Plate I— (A) The Indian Great Reed-Warbler (Acrocephahis sten-

toreus brunnescens) ... ... ... 600

(B) The Paddy-Field Warbler [Acrocephalus agricolus) ... 600 Plate II (A) The Common Coot (Fulica atra atra) ... ... 601

(B) The Central Asian Kingfisher {Alcedo atthis pallasii) 601

(C) The Pheasant-tailed Jacana {Hydrophasianus chirur-

gus) ... ... ... ... ... 601

Plate III— (A) The White- eyed Pochard (Nyroca ncfa rufa) ... 604

(B) Hodgson's Yellow-headed Wagtail {Motacilla

citreola citreoloides) ... ... ... 604

Plate IV— (A) The Eastern Baillons Crake ( Porzana pusilla ptisilla) 605 (B) The Northern Ruddy Crake (Amaurornis fuscus

bakeri) ... ... ... ... 605

Plate V— The Indian Little Grebe {Podiceps ruficol lis albi pen nis)... 606 Plate VI— The Little Bittern {Ixobrychus minutus minntus) ... 607 The Identification of Indian Butterflies- Plate \~LYC^EN1DM. Amblypodia ... ... ... 625

3

xii

LIST OF PLATES

Page

Indian Dragonflies—

Plate I— Figs. 1-2. Gomphus personatus ... ... 659

Fig. 3. nilgiricus £ ... ... 659

Fig. 4. ,, o'doneli J ... ... ... 659

Fig. 5. Heliogomphus ceylonicus £ ... ... 659

Fig. 6. ,, promelas <$ ... ... 659

Fig. 7. ',, nietneri $ ... ... 659

Birds of the Sikkim Himalayas- Plate I— (A) Above Karpon an g ... ... ... ... 668

(B) Lachung Valley above Kedom ... ... 668

Plate II— (A) Lachung Valley. Looking North-east elevation, 9,000' 674

(B) Lachung Valley, elevation, 8,800' ... ... 674

A Record Sind Wild Goat—

Capra hircus blythi ... ... ... ... ... 699

No. 4

The Mammals and Birds of Kashmir and the adjacent Hill Provinces—

Shou ( Cervus wallichi) .. ... ... ... ... 719

Birds of the Persian Gulf Islands—

Sketch-Map of Persian Gulf and Islands ... ... ... 725

Plate I— The Home of a Crab Plover Colony, Warba Island ... 728

Plate II— Cormorants nesting on Halul Islands ... ... 729

Plate III (A) Cormorant {Phalacrocorax nigrogularis) Colony on

Halul Islands ... ... ... 732

(B) Young Cormorants (P. nigrogularis) in white down

on Farsi Island ... ... ... ... 732

Plate IV— (A) Young Ospreys in nest Halul Islands ... ... 733

(B) Site of Osprey's nest on Halul Islands ... ... 733

Plate I. Fresh-water Ciliates from Lahore ... ... ... 746

Plate II. ,, ,, ,, ... ... ... 750

The Identification of Indian Butterflies- Plate XXIX—LYCJENID^. Surendra, Loxura, Spindasis, Tajuria, Jacoona, Mamies sus, Horaga, Catapeecilma,

Hy poly ccena and Artipe ... ... ... 756

Indian Spikenard {Nardostachys jatamansi) ... ... ... 777

Kleothrips subramanii ... ... ... ... ... 787

Birds Nesting with a Camera in India- Plate I— The Common Sandpiper ( Tringa hypoleuca) ... ... 794

Plate II— (A) Hodgson's Pied Wagtail {Motacilla alba hodgsoni) ... 795

(B) The Common Sandpiper ( Tringa hypoleuca) ... 795

Plate III— (A) The Common Sandpiper {Tringa hypoleuca) ... 798

(B) Jerdon's Little Ringed-Plover (Charadrius dubius

jerdoni) ... ... ... ... 798

(C) Jerdon's Little Ringed-Plover {Charadrius dubius

jerdoni) ... ... ... ... 798

Plate IV (A) The Indian Pied Kingfisher (Ceryle rudis leucome-

lanura) ... ... ... ... 799

(B) Hodgson's Pied Wagtail {Motacilla alba hodgsoni) ... 799

(C) Kashmir Roller ( Coracias garrula semenowi) ... 799

LIST OF PLATES

xiii

Page

Plate V— Jerdon's Little Ringed-Plover [Charadrius dubius jerdoni) 802

Indian Dragonflies 1—3 Cyclogomphus .-—4-7 Micro gomplms ... 854

Nests of the Common Indian Hornet ( Vespa cincta) ... ... 858

Birds of the Sikkim Himalayas- Plate XII— (A) Crags, North-west of Lachung Village ... 876 (B) Lachung Valley above the village ... ... 876

Plate XIII— (A) Sandakphu from Kalo Pokhari ... ... 886

(B) Kalo Pokhari Camp 10,160' ... ... ... 886

Tiger-netting in Assam- Plate I— No. 1. Men pulling on one of the ' Dhenki ' Ropes ... 907 No. 2. A small portion of the spectators ... ... 907

No. 3. Tiger rushing across the enclosure ... ... 907

Crow's Nests and Electric Cables— <, .

Plate :— No. 1. Crow's nest (weight 11 lbs.) made almost entirely of wire, built on the side strain insulator

Brackets ... ... ... ... 913

Crow's nest of wire in process of construction on

the over-head girder ... ... ... 913

A Butterfly swarm. (Leucodice soracte) ... ... ... 923

Synia melanaria, Muls., Predator on Coptosoma ostensum, Dist. ... 924

INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS

VOLUME XXX

Page

Acrocephahis agricolus, PL fig- 2 600 , stentoreus brunnes-

cens PI. fig. 1 ••■ 600

Alcedo atthis pallasii, PL fig. 2... 601 Amaurornis fuscus bakeri, PL

fig. 2 ... -605 Ambly podia, sp.Pl. ... 625

Antilope cervicapra, fig. 2 ... 512 Artipe, sp.V\. figs. - 756

Butorides striatus javanica figs... 918 Capra hircus blythi,V\. ••• 639

Capreolus pygargus, fig- ••■ 721

Catapcecilma sp., PI. fig- ••• 756

wallichi, PI. ... 719

CVrvte leucomelanura, PI.

fig.1 ...

CAara br achy pus, PI. fig- 1 - 590

-brachypus, PI. v, fig. - 599

braunii, PI. Hi. ••• 597

. PI. v, fig. - 599

contraria, PI. v, fig. ••• 599

corallina, PI. v, fig. •■• 5"

fragilis, PI. v, fig- 599

gymnopitys, v, fig. ... 599

hydropitys, PI. v, fig. ... 599

wallichii, PI. iv. -•• 598

PI. v, fig- .-. 599

zeylanica, PI. v, fig- ••• 599

Char adr ins dubius jerdoni, PI.

figs. 1-2 ... - 795 _ PL 802

Chilodon cucullus, PL fig. 11 ... 746

Coleps hirtus, Pi. fig- 4 ... 746

Colpidium colpoda, PL fig. 15 ... 750

. . compyla, PL fig. 14 ... 750

. ... 924 PL

... 799 ... 913

figs.

Page

Colpidium striatum, PL fig. 13 ... 750 Colpoda cucullus, PL fig. 16 ... 750 Copiosoma ostensum, PL figs Coracias garrula semenovi,

fig. 3 ... Corvus splendens, PL Cremastogaster auberti, PL

1.23 ... ... ... 541

Cyclidium glaucoma, PL fig. 19... 750 Cyclogomphus gynostylns, PL fig. 854

figs. ... 856

wilkinsi, PL fig. 2. 854

figs. 856

ypsiton, PL fig. 1. 854

figs. 856

Didinium balbianii, PL fig. 6

nasutum, PL fig. 5

Dileptus gigas, PL fig. 7 Diplosctichous, PL 1, fig. 3

tigris

Formicomus ninus, PL fig. 2 ., Fulica atra atra, PL fig. 1 G astro styla setifera, PL fig. 24 Gazella bennetti, fig. 11

fuscifrons, fig. 10

gutturosa altaica, fig. 5. 517

. (Procapra) gutturosa,

Fig. 4 ... 516

seistanica, fig. 9 ... 520

subgutturosa sairensis,

Fig. 7 519

suq gutturosa subgutturosa ,

Fig. 6 518

yarkandensis, fig. 8 ... 519

Glaucoma scintillans, PL fig. 12. 750

746 746 746 590 655 541 601 750 522 521

INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

xv

Page

Gomphus nilghiricus, PL fig. 3 ... 659

o'doneli, PL fig. 4 ... 659

personatus, wings of 657

PI. fig. 1, 2. ... 659 Halophrya simplex, PI. fig. 1 ... 746 Halteria grandinella, PI. fig. 21. 750 Helio gomphus ceylonicus, PI.

fig. 5 ... 659

nietneri, PI. fig. 7. 659

promelas, fig. ... 846

PI . fig. 6. 659

Horaja, sp., PI. figs. ... ... 756

Hydrophasianus chirurgus, PI.

fig. 3 601

Hypolycaena, sp., PI. figs. ... 756

Ixobrychus minutus minutus, PI. 607 Jacoona, sp., PI. figs. ... ... 756

Kleothrips subramanii, PI. ... 787

Labeo gonitis, PI. figs. 32, 13 ... 533 Lacrymaria striata, PI. fig. 3 ... 746 Leeuwenia karnyi, fig. ... ... 791

Leucodice soracte, Plate ... 923

Loxophyllum meleagris , PI. fig. 8 746 Loxura, sp., PI. figs. ... 756

Lychnothamnus barbatus, PI. v,

fig. 599

Marmessus, sp., PI. figs. ... 756

Microgomphus burmicus, PI.

fig. 6 ... 854

fig. 3 ... 856

Lilliputians, PI.

fig. 7 854

souteri, PI. fig. 5. 854

fig. i ... 856

torquatus fig. 2 ... 851

PI. fig. 4 854

fig. 2 ... 856

Moschus moschiferus moschiferus,

fig. ... ... ... 723

Motacilla. alba hodgsoni, PI. fig. 1 795 PI. fig. 2 799 cilreola citreoloides, PI.

fig. 2 604

Nardostachys jatamansi, P\. ... 777 Nassula ambigua, PI. fig. 10 ... 746 I

Page

Nassula rubens, PI. fig. 9 ... 746 Natrix gilhodesi, PI. fig. 2 ... 587

nigriventer, PI. fig. 1 .. 587

Nitella acuminata, PI. ii, fig. 1 ... 596

PI. v, fig. 2 ... 599

batrachosperma, PI. v,

fig. 10 599

hyalina, PI. v, fig. 16 ... 599

—mirabilis, PI. ii, fig. 2 ... 596

PI. v, fig. 1 ... 599

mucronata, PI. v, fig. 5 ... 599

Nyroca rufa rufa, PI. fig. 1 ... 604 Ophiocephalus marulius, PI. figs. 1-6, 14-19 ... ... 532

Pandion haliaetus, PI. ... 733

Panthalops hodgsoni, PI. ... 509

Phalacrocorax nigrogularis, Pis.

728, 732

Pleurotricha grandis, PI. fig. 23... 750 Podiceps ruficollis albipennis, PI . 606 Porzana pusilla pusilla, PI. fig. 1. 605

Procapra przewalskii, fig. 3 ... 515

Saiga tartarica, fig. 1 ... 510 Sigmostomum indicum, PL fig. 20 750 Spathidium spathnla, PL fig. 2 ... 746

Spindasis sp. PI. figs. ... 756

Suastus gremius, fig. ... 570

Surendra sp.,Pl. figs ... 756

Synia melanaria, PL figs. ... 924

Tajuria sp., PL figs . ... 756

Telotrochidium natthaii, PL fig.

18 ... ... ... 750

Tolypella prolifera, PL v, fig. ... 599

Tringa hypoleuca, PL ... 794

PL fig. 2 ... 795

PL fig. 1 ... 798

Triplostichous, PL 1, fig. 2 ... 590

UpuPa epops indica, fig. ... 916

Urocentrum turbo, PL fig. 17 ... 750

Urostyla weissii, PL fig. 22 ... 750

Vespa cincta, PI. ... ... 858

Wallagoattu, Pis. figs. 7-11 ...533

ERRATA

Page ii, line 4 for marilla read marila. ,, 517 legend for fig. 4 read fig. 5.

520 line 5 from bottom for yarkande?iisis read yarka?ide)isis.

603 3 for Tcrsephone read Terpsiphone. ,, 604 legend for Nycroca read Nyroca.

677 line 35 for fusciphaga read hiciphaga. 682 21 for xanthorhvnchus read xa?ithorhynchus. 688 11 from bottom for Psitaacula read Psittacula. ,, 688 ,, 32 for Rostratulla read Roslratula. 703 ,, 2 for marilla read marila.

703 3

726 33 for Phaleropus read Phalaropus.

728 ., 25 for Hirunda read Hirundo.

729 35 f or Caladris read Calidris.

,, 729 37 for Phaleropus read Phalaropus.

787 plate illustrating Kleothrips subra??ianii should face page 789.

798 line 4 from bottom for garulla read garrula. 799 legend ,,

, , 893 line 6 from bottom for mdicollies read ruiicollis. ,, 896 ,, 5 for Accipier read Accipiter. ,, 926 legend for Epopa read Upupa.

INDEX OF SPECIES

Page

Accipiter affinis ... 880

nisus melanoschistus ... 880

Aceros nipalensis 675

Acineta tuberosa 753

Acrocephalus agricolus .. 606

stentorlus brtmnescens. 600

^Edon g. familiaris ... ... .... 727

Aeolothrips fulvicollis 864

Aerornachus indistincta 835

jhora ..- 835

Aeshna ceylonica .. 849

promelas 848

^Egypius monachus 873

^Ethopyga gouldise gouldise 666

ignicauda ignicauda ... 665

nipalensis nipalensis ... 666

saturata 666

siparaja seherias 665

Ailia coila 709

Alauda arvensis leiopus 664

gulgula guttata 664

Alcedo atthis bengalensis 674

pallasii 600

iredalei ... 674

Aleurodothrips fasciapennis 869

Alophonerpes pulverulentus harterti ... 671

Alsocomus pulchricollis 885

Amaurornis fuscus balicri 608

Ambassis nama 710

ranga 710

Amblopala avidiena 622

Amblyceps mangois 709

Amblypodia aberrans 637

abseus abseus 637

indicus 637

mackwoodi ... 637

adala 635

adatha regia 629

adorea 629

adriana 638

" xeta .t. 635

Page

Amblypodia agaba agaba 630

anrelia ... ... 630

agelastus 634

agesilaus 627

agnis 626

agrata 629

alaconia oberthuri ... 634

albopunctata 628

alea alea 630

constancex 630

alemon 631

alesia 633

alitaeus mirabella 628

amantes amantes ... 632

amatrix 632

ammonides ammonides... 636

. ariel ^ 636

amphimuta 627

anarte 625

anniella artegal 638

anthelus anthea 625

anthelus ... 625

antimuta ... 635

apha 629

apidanus ahamus ... 638

apidanus ... 638

arata 629

areste areste 638

arestina 638

ariana 628

arvina 635

asoka 638

asopia ... 634

atosia aricia ... ... 657

atosia 627

atrax 628

bazaloides ... ... 633

bazalus ... , 632

belphasbe 635

birmana 636

camdeo camdeo ... ... 626

xviii

INDEX OF SPECIES.

Page

Amblypodia camdeo varro 626

canaraica 630

centaurus centaurus ... 631

coruscans ... 631

pirama ... 631

pirithous ... 631

chinensis 638

comica 634

cooperi 631

corinda acestes 633

diardi 637

dispar 626

dodonaea 634

duessa 635

eilisi 637

epimuta elsiei ... ... 627

eumolphus eumolphus... 632

nellenore ... 632

maxwelli ... 632

f ulgida 637

f ulla andamanica ... 659

ignara 639

ganesa ganesa 636

watsoni 636

hewitsoni... 630

horsfieldi eurysthenes ... 632

karennia 626

khamti 629

metamuta 627

moolaiana 627

aenea 629

opalina 626

pagaiensis 627

paraganesa paraganesa.. 636

zephyretta ... 636

paralea 631

paramuta 634

perimuta perimuta ... 635

. regia 635

phcenops aroa 630

pryeri 630

rafflesii 628

rama rama 634

ramosa 634

silhetensis arama ... 629

silhetensis 628

singla 632

subfasciata 625

suffisa 626

vihara 633

woodii ... ... ... 633

Page

Amblypodia zeta 635

Amphileptus gigas 747

Ampittia dioscorides 832

Ampulex assimilis 735

Anaphothrips oligochaetus 871

ramakrishnae 871

Anas acuta acuta 893

penelope 893

platyrhyncha platyrhyncha ... 608

strepera 893

Andropogon schaenanthus 780

Androthrips flavipes , 869

ramachandrai 871

Anguilla bengalensis 709

Anisogomphus nietneri 847

Anser indicus 892

Anthracoceros coronatus affinis ... 675

Anthus campestris griseus 731

hodgsoni 701

triviates triviates 728

Antilope cervicapra 911

Apistus carinatus 641

Apodemus (nemomys) gurkha ... 530

Aporia leucodice soracte 923

Aptinothrips rufus, var. eonnati-

cornis 867

Aquila nipalensis nipalensis 875

Arachnothera magna magna 667

Araotes lapithis 775

Arborophila mandellii 890

rufogularis rufogularis ... 889

torqueola 889

Ardea insignis ... 892

Ardeola ralloides ... 73'$

Arenaria interpres . 729

Arnetta vindhiana 574

Arrhenothrips ramakrishnae 869

Artipe eryx ... 770

v. skmneri 770

Arvicola 530

Asio flammeus flammeus 684

leucopsis 684

Aspidisca costata ... 753

lynceus 753

Astur badius dussumien. 879

gentilis schedowi 879

trivirgatus rufitinctus ... ... 880

Austrothrips cochinchinensis. ... 868

Aviceda jerdoni jerdoni 881

Ayyaria chaetophora 871

Bactridothrips cerraticornis ... ... 870

INDEX OF SPECIES

Page

Bagarius yarrellii 709

Bandicota nemorivaga 528

Barbus crysopternus 708

parrah 70S

sarana 708

stigma ... ... 708

stoliczkanus 708

Barilus bola 708

Batrachostomus hodgsoni 678

Belone cancila 710

Biduanda melisa cyara 766

melisa ... ... 766

nicevillei 767

scudderii 767

thesmia fabricii 767

thesmia ... ... 767

Bindahara phocides areca 774

moorei 774

phocides 774

Biscunedens perfuscus 530

Blythipicus pyrrhotis pyrrhotis ... 671

Boiga cynodon 818

Boleophthalmus boddaerti 644

Bosephalus tragocamelus 523

Botia dario 708

gelo 708

Brachytrypes achatinus 735

Bregmatothrips parviceps 867

ramakrishnae 867

Britomartis buto 761

cleoboides 762

Bubulcus ibis coromandus , 892

Bungarus fasciatus 819

magnimaculatus 820

multicinctus 819

Butastur teesa 877

Buteo ferox ferox 878

hemilasius 878

japonicus 878

Butis butis 644

caperatus 643

Butorides striatus javanicus 918

Cacomantis merulinus passerinus ... 681

querulus ... 681

Calandrella acutirostris tibet'ana ... 664 brackydactyla dukhunensis. 664

Calidris alba 729

Callichrous bimaculatus 709

Calliophis macclellandi 820

Callophrys chalybeia 619

Page

Callophrys leechii

.. 619

rubi

.. 619

Canis indicus

.. 527

Capella nemoricola

.. 891

solitaria

.. 892

stenura

.. 892

Capra hircus blythi

.. 699

Capreolus pygargus

.. 721

Caprimtilgus indicus jotaka ...

... 678

macrurus nipalensis

... 677

Carchesium epistylidis

.. 753

polypinum

.. 753

Casarca ferrnginea

.. 893

Catla buchanani

.. 708

Catopcecilma delicatum

... 768

elegans major ...

... 768

myositina

... 768

... 768

Cecidothrips bursarum

... 868

Centropus bengalensis bengalensis

... 683

sinensis sinensis

... 683

Cephalothrips hispanicus

... 868

Cerchneis tinnunculus saturates

... 881

sub-sp. ?

... 881

Cervus albirostus

... 720

wallichi

... 719

Ceryle lugubris guttulata

... 674

-rudis leucomelanura

... 799

Ceyx tridactylus tridactylus ...

... 674

Chaetoprocta odata

... 622

Chaimarrornis leucocephala ...

... 799

Chalcococcyx erythrorhynchus

... 682

maculatus

... 682

Chalcoparia singalensis singalensis

... 668

Chalcophaps indica

... 884

Chara brachypus

597, 599

braunii

597, 599

contraria ...

597

corallina

597, 599

fragilis

597, 599

gymnopitys

597, 599

hydropitys

597, 599

wallichii ...

597, 599

zeylanica

597, 599

Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus

726, 729

curonicus dubius ...

... 729

dubius curonicus ...

... 726

jerdoni

... 795

-leschenaultii

... 729

monjolus atrifrons ...

... 729

XX

INDEX OF SPECIES

Page

Charana cepheis...

... 764

m nnrlnriniiQ

111 CVll \A ClL 1 11 Wo •■•

764

flavigula

... 528

Chela gora

708

Cheritra freja freja

766

... 766

pseu do jaffra ...

... 766

... 766

Cheritrella truncipennis

765

Chetusia leucura

... 891

Chilaria kina cachara ...

... 769

kina

... 769

merguia merguia

... 769

watsoni

... 769

Chliaria othona

... 769

Chilodon cncullus 748

, 753, 755

Chlamydotis undulata macqueeni

726, 733

Chlidonias leucopareia indica...

605, 606

Choridactylus multibarbis

... 642

Chrysocolaptes gutticristatus gutti-

cristatus

... 671

Chrysopelea ornata

... 819

Chrysophlegma flavinucha flavinucha 669

Cinclus pallasii tenuirostris ...

... 800

Circus cyaneus cyaneus

... 878

macrourus

... 878

melanoleucus

... 878

pygargos

... 877

spilonotus

... 605

Cirrhina latia

... 708

mrigala ... 531, 537, 538, 708

reba

... 708

Clamator coromandus ...

... 682

jacobinus

... 682

Clarias magur

... 709

Clupea chapra

... 708

ilisha

... 708

Cocotropus echinatus

... 643

Ccernrrothrips affinis

... 868

Coleps hirtus

... 753

kenti

... 753

uncinatus

... 753

Collacalia fuciphaga brevirostris

... 677

Colpidium colpoda

748, 753

comyla

748, 753

striatum

748, 753

. truncatum ...

... 755

Colpoda cucullus

748, 753

Coluber leonardi

... 813

" porphyraceus

... 812

prasinus

... 812

Page

Coluber radiatus .. 813

Columba leuconota gradaria 884

leuconota ... 884

rupestris turkestanica ... 884

Conophyma fedtschenkoi ... 559, 560

ikonnikovi sp. n. 559, 560

jacobsoni sp. n. ... 554,560

- mirdrnce sp. n. ... 553, 560

mitchelli ... 552,560

plotnikovi sp. n. ... 556, 560

pylnovi sp. n. ... 558,560

semenovi ... 551, 560

simile 556, 560

sokolovvi 554, 560

uvarovi 560

weberi ... ... ... 560

zubovskyi sp. n. .. 551, 560

Coptosoma ostensum 924

Coracias benghalensis benghalensis... 673

garrulus semen owi ... 732, 798

Corvus corax ruficollis ... 725, 726, 727

coronoides intermedius ... 802

monedula soemmeringii 604, 798

splendens 913

Coryllis vernalis 684

Cothurnia sp 753

Coturnix coturnix coturnix 889

Cremastogaster auberti sorokini ... 541

Creusa cnlta 762

Crocopus phoenicoptera phoenicoptera. 883

Cryptocheilus rubellus 735

Cryptothrips longus 869

Ctenogobius cyanomos... 646

griseus 648

horai sp. n. 645

masoni 648

tuticorinensis sp. n. ... 645

viridipunctatus 647

Cuculus canorus subtelephonus ... 728

telephonus 678

intermedius intermedius ... 679

micropterus micropterus ... 679

optatus 67S, 802

Cuncuma leucorypha 877

Curetis acuta dentata 623

bulis bulis 623

malayica 623

phoedrus 623

saronis gloriosa.. 623

nicobarica 623

saronis 623

INDEX OF SPECIES

xxi