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THE

INTELLECTUAL OBSERVER

REVIEW OF NATURAL HISTORY

MICROSCOPIC RESEARCH

AND

RECREATIVE SCIENCE

VOLUME XII,

ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES IN COLOURS AND TINTS, AND NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD

LONDON GROOMBRIDGE AND SONS

PATERNOSTER ROW. 7

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CONTENTS.

Norrs on Star Srreams. By Ricuarp A. Procror, B.A., F.R.A.S. With a Coloured Plate ....... INADODAMoSoGCUonoOD oo oOOoUcEObE aoa ero GTO JAPAN AND ITS CuRRENCY. By JosupH Newron, H.M. Mint ...... Funer on THE Prams or Inpra. By Ruy. M.'l. Berxerey, M. A,, FL, is LMOSARMAT SSEK Bee naesoku ob ubeedoes CopoedoosadobncObd sunandog A Visir to Guzen Crova—Its Guotocy anp Furns. By BERNARD Hany WooDWARD...... oddone oobuOOD OUOSUoUSNOdooOOObOSe MD Ce COoMOM SOS ORIGIN oF THE CHEDDAR CLIFES. By D. Macxintosu, F. eee ae: Dovusrs aNnD Facts ConcERNING LINNE .....0..0. 00.000 ce cece eececeee CurRtosiITIeES OF SOUND...... DooM edad po Sb oped sO hood MoE oadolocemogaaec Tue Porrery TREE or Para. "By Joun R. Jackson. With a Plate oc Mare VarorumM AND THE LUNAR Cxerrs—Ocoutrations. By the Rev. TEN Wamp, ATM, HEUROANB. sos ws Sak Sune Sere e doo'g Sie soeooe PuysicaL GroGRAPHY AS A PopuLAR STUDY .......0cceece cece ee eens Resutts oF MErEoRoLoGIcaL OpsERVATIONS MADE aT Kaw OBSERVATORY. IB SANE. Wars Pn F258 p tela a, Neds oeils, ciate alle evalleneso el ataraye ais hero tulenstelsmoreeteks Mars Durning THe Late Qpposirion. By Joun BRowNinc, F.R.AS, With a Coloured Platé...... cc. cece cee eereees aupuooUo edo onto’ Tue Functions oF THE Buoop. ee C. W. Harton Gaads itafaiisleh ghee nee Tue Lunar CLErn tions. By the Ruy. T. W. s. A.M., F.R.AS. vLuetenaemeters Tue Foop or THE Sammon. By W. Hoverron, M.A., MNS) Le A Synopsis of THE Recent BririsH Ostracopa. By Groner STEWARDSON Brapy,M.R.C.S..C\ML AS. With Pwo Pbatbes io a ewww ee cele we Aw Aprit Crimp in THE Himatayas. By Gnorce C. Bunemr........ ELECTRICAL COUNTRIES AND THEIR ACTION ON THE WrEATHER. By M. x. SiG. {UiLs 105 Ute i Urge PPTL ean Wks MHA ha toy aleve Aaanerane comers Rue cna RainBow PHOSPHORESCENCE ..... avacoe Sh tapelet eee Relor terns eters ete as Tue Ervprions AT SANTORIN........-. Soacoos soogosoe listakatetateys earners JUPITER WITHOUT SATELLITES ........ SOR OR IR ROR Ac ich one et sec teandeily InpiraBitity oF Puants..... Nae akes BERN SUA AEA fe vceMe Ni AAD SRG IA Venus’ Frower Basket—EvupiecreLia Sprciosa. By Hmnry J. “SEACK, F.G.S., Hon. Src. R.M.S. With a Coloured Plate .....e....-0 0s Dress AccorpING to Statute. By Francis W. RowsEbb............. Tur Grave-Mounps oF DERBYSHIRE, AND THEIR CoNnTENTS. ‘By Lrswet- PRON EWE, d BASAL MEMO: SABRC 4.) PL A Se wale wilelalete sirtusie rele e's Tur NovemBer Suoorine Stars. By Ricwarp A. PRooron, B.A. F.RAS. Midas Gh JELGUE endo Deon Oe 6b 5p 6 Go OO MOIS DUDE OTC UGH on Os DOO Un OND THE Larcest Broop Discs KNown—SinecuLar CarTuRE oF A CANADIAN REPDInE, | Min OBRAN CHUS MATER ATIS te lvis/els arn 0 eral ele’ sicie = 6 is)erellaiel ees Man snp THE PLEIsTOcENE Mammats or Great. Briraq. By W. Boyp DAWICINS GAGs Eki Senn NiEnRtsy CO ORRMSP./ alas vintalatielsalolejeials sinelaletbalenats Tue Arr-VESICLEs or BLADDERWORTS (Urricunarta). By J.B. ScuNETZLER GRUITHUISEN’S Ciry in THE Moon—Jvupirer’s SATELLITES—OCOULTATIONS. By sthe dev Mis) Wisi Wein eAy Mie THURS AUG era rare a) biel enone lat map elienente Tue Lunar Ecriese oF Szrr. 13. By Joun ‘BRowNIne, RAR se cere

On Cotours Seen Durine tHE Lunar Eciirsz or Supt. 13, with REMARKS ON THE PreceDInG Communication. By Hrnnry J. Suacx, EB? Grey i OE Cry EUSIMIENS sm iyaegeicn (ac ihre cnn evade seseuselensbetoleloteretortananieveters

PAGE

iv Contents.

Tur Axsyssmnian Expepirion. By Prorzssor D. T. ANSTED ........0- BaRBETS AND THEIR Distrisution. By P. L. Scuater, M.A., Px.D., F.R.S. With Coloured Plate....... efsjaie ee oes) etenehenoialeTarehtelt eee On THE STRUCTURE AND MANNER OF GROWTH OF THE SCALES OF FIsHEs. By Jonatruan Covucn, F.1.S., C.M.Z.8S., Eto. .......22- 2... ee eee THE Grave-Mounps oF DERBYSHIRE, AND THEIR CONTENTS. By Lirwet- LYNN Jewitt, F.S.A., Erc., Ero. With a Plate.................- a0 Tue STRUCTURE OF THE ANNELIDS, WITH A CRITICISM ON QUATREFAGES. By Epovarp CLAPAREDE........ aol seleientene Aeon Aas a0 poaoodas THe Lunar EratostHenes AND CopERNicus—J UPITER’ s SATELLITES Occurtations. By the Rev. T. W. Weszs, A.M., F.R.A.S. . CuaractEristics oF Rotirers. By Henry J. SLack, E.G.S., Src. RMS. MEE PUG be sa rare es aicis iat cayeles « ailela ese oimict tele lere er ieee eene . STANDARDS OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES AND ‘Comnace. By JosEPH Newron REsvtts OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS MADE AT Kew OBSERVATORY. By G.M. WHIPPLE. ....0-0 cece e- cues ODEO Ooo as os oo Ap Novet Action or Licut. By Nrercr pz Sr. "Vicror .. icine \ohetafeteepeiarene Insects’ Eees: tTHerr Structurr, VARIETY, AND BEAUTY. By JapBeEz Hoge, F.L.S., Hon. Szc. R.M.S., Ere. With a Coloured Plate...... Rar. By Ricwarp A. Proctor, B. Ag BURCAIS. oo. xc: es eee Tue Grave Mounps or DERBYSHIRE AND THEIR CONTENTS. By Luewe- TWINING DIE WEDE, AH. SoAU, EirGs5 MITC. ii ype el-felstekeiicksteie teicher teas jggbbse oC Sm Isaac Newton. With a Fac-simile of his. Writing. By Joserx Newtons cobs Mia Min sci ots el svasa adsense an katona eta slafe sts MRA Fur-BEarine Foxrs. By Jonn Keast Lorn, F.Z.S. ........00-secee ce THE STRUCTURE OF THE ANNELIDS, WITH A CRITICISM ON QUATREFAGES. By Epovarp CLAPAREDE. Seconp Part. ......... ofa ofads delet step sek eetere

Lunar Detairs—Dovstz Stars—CuiusTErs iss NeEesuL#—TRANSITS OF

PAGH

227 241 a 246 254 266 278

281 297

302 308

321 331

342

350 354

365

Sarettires—Occurtations. By Rev. T. W. Wezs, A.M., F.R.A.S. 370 TERMITES OR WHITE ANTS oF INDIA. By Carrain R. C. BEVAN, C.M.Z.8. 381 Tue InTELLECTUAL OpsERVER AND “THE Srupent.”’ NorTicE TO ouR

READERS. o)660 os bes aren Bs RST yeaa wisi bis tale eaihae Seo eTeRSeE one 401 On THE Pre-uisToRIC Mammatia FOUND ‘ASSOCIATED WITH Man, ‘Ty Great

Brita. By W. Boyp Dawxins, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S...........000- 403 EEectricat Countries. By M.J. Fourner. Secon PAPER Milo 6 411 NotEs on THE CrusTACEAN Fauna ofr THE ENGLISH Laxzs. By GEORGE

STEWARDSON Brapy, M.R.C.S,,C.M.Z.S. With a Plate ...... slecihais: 416 Tut PuHimosopuicaL INstRUMENTS IN THE Paris Exurpition. By C. R.

WEED 81 5:4" pseu daus Bast oak cous yata ce tele dic 6s tee elisha MERCH iste SRS 425 Lunar SKetcues—TRANSITS OF JUPITER’S SATELLITES OCCULTATIONS. By

gue Rey, T. W. Wepx, A.M., FLR.ALS.. oo... .:.).-ty: ie eesvaleieiae tale 435 Our Fresu-water Prananrm. By W. Hoveuton, M.A, F. ie S, With a

LOCO esiot ace le. os el oe RO Ts eee © wa: ale lait fails ete els eRe ners 445 THE Grave-Mounps or DERBYSHIRE, AND THEIR Contents, "By LLEWEL-

LYNN JEwiTt, F.S.A., Erc. ...... sh vbie ld eisbalaradele stake tate Algae eo Literary Notvices.. ........ erate atatn tes Maittete chante viefae 78, 155, 317, 384, 476 ARCHZOLOGIA...... Bie R aileren ac arcvureyens auareetiesateck s a fakeveS faa . 148, 238, 310 PROGRESS OF INVENTION s+ sseecsee sees ‘seca te eaeeyete 74, 150, 237, 313, 391, 473 PRoceEDINGS oF LEARNED SOCIETIES are jets ‘a0 overs cie(e inlemeterayevereheieeele 395, 478 PS OLN TUIINGS NUREIIN GS sasassinigicic.o/os pm maieic foie Bicila's a «aia Crees IE wae MO,

Notes anp MremoranDaA ......

Bi iuishage, A(niuin,s)s.syacercis ems 158, 239, 319, 398, 479

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NOIZYOd NYHHLYON “AYM AXATIN

THE INTELLECTUAL OBSERVER,

AU GW Ss VS.

NOTES ON STAR-STREAMS. BY RICHARD A. PROCTOR, B.A., F.R.A.S. (With a Coloured Plate.)

To those who rightly appreciate its meaning, the Milky Way is the most magnificent of all astronomical phenomena. However opinions may vary as to the configuration of the star-streams composing this object, no doubt now exists among astronomers that the Milky Way is really a bed of suns, some doubtless, falling short of our own sun in brilliancy, but many probably surpassing it. Around these suns, we may fairly conceive, there revolve systems of dependent orbs, each supporting its myriads of living creatures. We have afforded to us a noble theme for contemplation, in the consideration of the endless diversities of structure, and of arrangement, which must pre- vail throughout this immensity of systems.

I propose to examine what is known of this marvellous object, and to present some considerations which appear to me to have an important bearing on the views we should form of its structure.

As the complete figure of the Milky Way is not easily gathered from most star-maps that I have met with, and is incorrectly delineated in many, I have drawn out, in Figs. 1 and 2, that zone of the heavens which contains the Milky Way. The advantage of selecting a zone, in this way, is that the whole object can be presented with very little distortion. If the strips represented in the figure were connected, and the long strip thus formed were bent into a circular belt, the complete figure of the galaxy (as exhibited on a celestial globe) would be satisfactorily represented. Owing to the irregularity of the object, it was not possible to include the whole (and also certain stars necessary to the treatment of the subject), without selecting a zone along which the galaxy is not absolutely central. I think, however, that the reader will find little difficulty on this account.

VOL. XII.—NO. I. B

2, Notes on Star-Streams.

The figure here given to the Milky Way, is that I have adopted in my star-maps, my authorities being chiefly John- stone’s Atlas of Modern Astronomy, and Sir J. Herschel’s des- cription of the galaxy; but in the northern portion the figure given in the Society’s maps has occasionally been followed. I will here epitomize Herschel’s description, the most complete yet given. The reader will see that it corresponds closely with the configuration adopted in the illustrative figures.

The galaxy traverses the constellation Cassiopeia. Thence it throws off a branch towards a Persei, prolonged faintly towards the Pleiades. The main stream, here faint, passes on through Auriga, between the feet of Gemini and the bull’s horns, over Orion’s club, to the neck of Monoceros. Thence, growing gradually brighter, the stream passes over the head of Canis Major, in a uniform stream, until it enters the brow of Argo, where it subdivides. One stream continues to y Argus, the other diffuses itself broadly, forming a fan-like expanse of interlacing branches which terminate abruptly ina line through Xand y Argus. Here there is a gap, beyond which the Milky Way commences in a similar fan-shaped grouping, converging on the brillant (and im other respects remarkable) star, 7 Argus. Thence, it enters the Cross by a narrow neck, and then directly expands into a broad, bright mass, extending almost to a Centauri. Within this mass is a singular cavity known as the Coal-sack. Ata Centaurithe Milky Way again subdivides, a branch running off at an angle of 20°, and losing itself in a narrow streamlet. The main stream increases in breadth, until “making an abrupt elbow,” it subdivides into one continuous but irregular stream, and a complicated system of interlacing streams covering the region around the tail and following claw of Scorpio. A wide interval separates this part of the galaxy from the great branch on the northern side, which is seen in Fig. 2, terminating close on @ Ophiuchi.

The main stream, after exhibiting several very remarkable condensations, passes through Aquila, Sagitta, and Vulpecula, to Cygnus. In Cygnus there is a “confused ‘and pateby” region, marked by a broad vacancy, not unlike the Coal-sack. From this region there is thrown off the offset to 8 Ophiuchi already mentioned ; the main stream is continued to Cassiopeia.

There only remains to be noticed ‘a considerable offset or protuberant appendage,” thrown from the head of Cepheus directly towards the pole.

A word as to the changes in the appearance and position of the Milky Way from month to month, at any given hour. Selecting ten o’clock in the evening, as the most convenient hour, we e have the following variations of configuration :—At the winter solstice the Milky Way passes nearly through the

Notes on Star-Streams. 3

zenith, crossing the horizon towards the south-east and north- west. Its brightest part is low down towards the last named quarter, where the constellation Cygnus lies close to the horizon. One month later, the Milky Way crosses the horizon towards the south-south-east, and north-north-west, and is bowed some 20° from the zenith towards the west-south-west. Cygnus is now half-set. Yet another month, and the Milky Way is found crossing the northern and southern points of the horizon, and bowed about 40° from the zenith towards the west—Cyenus more than half set. At the Vernal Hquinox, the Milky Way crosses the horizon towards the south-south-west, and north-north-east, and is bowed upwards of 50° from the zenith towards the west-north-west. One month later (that is about the 20th of April), and we find the Milky Way crossing the horizon towards the west somewhat southerly, and towards the east somewhat northerly, and only raised about 20° above the northern horizon. It is now easy to follow the remaining changes without special comment. The eastern end travels southwards, the western northwards, along the horizon, the central part approaching the zenith, just as hitherto it has been seen to leave the zenith. The bright parts in Cygnus and Aquila are more and more favourably seen as they approach the zenith, being best seen in July and August (at 10 p.m.). About this time we see the southern portion of the Milky Way somewhat beyond Antares (the heart of Scorpio), whereas six months before the greatest range on the opposite side (including nearly the whole of the gap in Argo) had been visible. Atthe end of October the Milky Way (at 10 p.m.), is seen vertically overhead, and crossing the horizon towards the east and west quarters, the western half being the most conspicuous.

Galileo was the first to prove, though earlier astronomers had entertained the notion, that the Milky Way is composed of a vast number of stars, crowded closely together. But no attempt was made to offer a theory of its structure until in 1754, Thomas Wright, in his “‘ Theory of the Universe,” pro- pounded views closely according with those entertained at the present time. This philosophic observer, having examined a portion of the galaxy with a reflecting telescope, only one foot in focal length, came to the conclusion that our sun is in the midst of a vast stratum of stars; that it is when we look along the direction in which this stratum extends, that we see the zone of light constituting the Milky Way; and that as the line of sight is inclined at a greater and greater angle to the mean plane of the stratum, the apparent density of the star-grouping gradually diminishes.

But it is to Sir W. Herschel, and the supplementary labours of Sir J. Herschel, that we owe the more definite views at

4, Notes on Star-Streams.

present entertained respecting the Via Lactea. The elder Herschel, whose nobly speculative views of nature were accompanied by practical common sense, and a wonderful power of patient observation, applied to the heavens his now celebrated method of gauging. Heassumed as a first principle, to be modified by the results of observation, that there is a tolerable uniformity in the distribution of stars through space. Directing his twenty-feet reflector successively towards different parts of the heavens, he counted the number of stars which were visible at any single view. The field of view of this reflector was 15’ in diameter, so that the portion of the sky included in any one view was less than one-fourth of that ‘covered by the moon. He found the number of stars visible m different parts of the heavens, in a field of view of this size, to be very variable. Sometimes there were but two or three stars in the field; indeed, on one occasion he counted only ‘three stars in four fields. In other parts of the heavens the ‘whole field was crowded with stars. In the richer parts of the ‘galaxy as many as 400 or 500 stars would be visible at once, sand on one occasion he saw as many as 588. He calculated that in one quarter of an hour 116,000 stars traversed the field of his telescope, when the richest part of the galaxy was under observation. Now, on the assumption above-named, the number of stars visible when the telescope was poimted in any given direction was a criterion of the depth of the bed of stars in that direction. Thus, by combining a large number of observations, a couception—rough, indeed, but instructive— might be formed of the figure of that stratum of stars within which our sun is situated.

One section of the galactic nebula, as determined from Herschel’s observations, is given in Figure 3. The projections extending to the left correspond to those portions of the

ae Fig. 3. particular great circle considered, which cross the double part of the Milky Way; the opposite projection represents the portion crossed by the single stream; while the comparative flattening of the central part indicates the gradual diminution

of star-density in directions remoyed from the galactic zone. It is, of course, to be understood that Herschel was far from

Notes on Star-Streams. >

supposing that such a figure correctly represented the figure of the section. He looked upon it as affording but a rough indication of the true figure. He had indeed noticed, so early as 1785, that there is a tendency in the Milky Way to cluster around definite regions of the heavens; and he saw that the fact of such clustermg was sufficient to account for many irregularities of the figure, quite irrespectively of the absolute extent of the Milky Way im space. If we are looking from a height at the lights of a large town, we may fairly assume that a row of many lights very closely ranged, hes at a greater distance from us than another row contaiing liehts more widely dispersed, if we have reason to suppose that throughout all the streets of the town the lights are separated by distances approximately equal. But if we have reason to suspect that there are some streets lighted more fully than others, the inference would be no longer valid. And, again, Herschel suspected that there are stars so large, as to bear a sort of sway among other stars by superior attractive influence. Here, then, was another element of difficulty, since it becomes clear (1) that the brilliancy of a star is no positive evidence of proximity ; and (2) that there may be (besides the obvious clustering already considered) laws of systematic distribution, which might largely modify the evidence afforded by star- gauging. For instance, returning to the illustration given above, if we have reason to suspect that there are many lights of superior brilliancy, in some parts of a town, and that further there are in some streets laws of arrangement among the lights, or that there are irregularities of surface-contour, which pro- duce here and there a greater or less foreshortening than would result on a level ground, we should have to make allowance for these points in attempting to form an estimate of the distances at which the different parts of the town are removed from us.

Still, the results obtained by Sir W. Herschel have very properly been accepted as affording general evidence of high value.

Sir J. Herschel, during his residence at the Cape of Good Hope, carried out an extensive series of observations of the southern heavens. Applying his father’s method of gauging, with a telescope of equal power, he obtained a result agr ecing, in a most remarkable manner, with those obtained by Sir William Herschel. It appeared, however, that the southern hemisphere is somewhat richer in stars than the northern, a result which has been accepted as indicating that our system is probably somewhat nearer the southern than the northern part of the galactic nebula.

Combining the results obtained by the two Herschels, we should assion to the stratum of stars a fizure somewhat resem-

6 Notes on Star-Streams.

bling that of the solid cloven disc exhibited in Figs. 4 and 5. The latter figure, being a side view, gives the figure of the

rT

Fig. 5.

imaginary section which appears so often in works on astro- nomy. In Figs. 3 and 5 the small circle near the centre indicates the probable extent (on the theory in question) of the sphere within which stars down to the fourth magnitude may be supposed to be included.

The main difficulties in attempting to form an estimate of the real configuration of the galactic nebula are those which have been already mentioned. Have we evidence confirming or disproving (1) the tendency to clustering suggested by the elder Herschel, (2) the possible variability among star-magni- tudes, and (3) of influences exerted by large stars in guiding or swaying others? It appears to me that there are indications of a very obvious and important character, which have been either altogether unnoticed, or much less noticed than they deserve. In considering these indications, I would refer the reader chiefly to Figs. 1 and 2; but some portions of the evidence cannot be thoroughly understood without reference to star-maps, in which (at a single view, if possible) the course of the Milky Way is exhibited im a manner which enables us at once to determine its relations to the constellations not included in these figures. I write with my black star-maps before me, my object being to consider the special evidence afforded by stars of the leading magnitudes. It may seem (and, indeed, on the assumption of any approach to uniformity in the true magnitudes, or distribution of stars, it must necessarily be) a very imperfect method to refer to star-maps including only the first five magnitudes, still more to consider the first four magnitudes which are alone represented in Fig. 1. It is

Ee ee ee

Notes on Star-Streams. 7

obvious that if our sun is placed within such a stratum as is exhibited in Figs. 3, 4, and 5, no evidence whatever as to the structure of that stratum can be afforded by considering the comparatively few stars included within the small central circle. But it is this very fact on which I wish to dwell. If any connection does appear between the configuration of our galaxy, and the arrangement of stars which are assumed to be much nearer to us than the Milky Way, it will be obvious that we must somewhat modify the views illustrated by these figures.

Now, taking Figs. 1 and 2, I think one can trace a con- nection between the stars there depicted, and that stream of nebulous light which the view we are examining teaches us to consider as at an indefinite distance beyond those stars. In the northern portion, perhaps, the connection is not very remarkable. Wesee that a large number of the brighter stars lie on or near the Milky Way, but it would require the exami- nation of a somewhat wider zone than that here presented to exhibit this arrangement as positive evidence of aggregation. However, I think no one who has attentively examined the glories of Orion, the richly-jewelled Taurus, the singular festoon of stars in Perseus, and the closely-set stars of Cassio- peia, but must have felt that the association of splendour along this streak of the heavens is not wholly accidental. The stars here seem to form a system, and a system which one can hardly conceive to be wholly unconnected with the neighbour- ing stream of the Milky Way. But in the southern portion the arrangement is yet more remarkable and significant. From Scorpio, over the feet of the Centaur, over the keel of Argo, to Canis Major, there is a clustering of brilliant stars, which it seems wholly impossible not to connect with the background of nebulous light. It is noteworthy, also, that this stream of stars merges into the stream commencing with the group of Orion already noticed. Nor is this all. itis impossible not to be struck by the marked absence of stars in that region of the sky which lies in the upper right-hand corner of Fig. 2. One has the impression that the stars have been attracted towards the region of the stream indicated, so as to leave this space comparatively bare.

Now, this last circumstance would appear less remarkable if the paucity of stars here noticed were common also in parts of the heavens far removed from the Milky Way. But this is not the case. Beyond this very region, which we find so bare of stars, we Come upon a region in which stars are clustered in considerable density, a region including Crater, Corvus, and. Virgo, with the conspicuous stars Algores, Alkes, and Spica. But, what is very remarkable, while we can trace a connection between the stream of bright stars in Fig. 2, and the stream

8 Notes on Star-Streams.

of nebulous light in the background, it is cbvious that the two streams are not absolutely coimcident in direction. The stream lies (in the figure) above the Milky Way near Scorpio, crosses it in the neighbourhood of Crux, and passes below it alone Canis Minor, Orion, and Taurus. Does the stream return to the Milky Way? It seems to me that there is clear evidence of a separation near Aldebaran, one branch curving through Auriga, Perseus, and Cassiopeia, the other proceeding (more nearly in the direction originally observed) through Aries (throwing out an outlier along the band of Pisces), over the square of Pegasus, and along the streams which the ancients compared to water from the urn of Aquarius (but which in our modern maps are divided between Aquarius and Grus). The stream-formation here is very marked, as is evident from the phenomenon having attracted the notice of astronomers so long ago. But modern travels have brought within our ken the continuation of the stream over Toucan, Hydrus, and Reti- culum (the two latter names being doubtless suggested by the convolutions of the stream in this neighbourhood). Here the stream seems to end in a sort of double loop, and it is not a little remarkable that the Nubecula Major lies within one loop, the Nubecula Minor within the other. It is also noteworthy that from the foot of Orion there is another remarkable stream of stars, recognised by the ancients under the name of the River Eridanus, which proceeds in a sinuous course towards this same region of the Nubecule.

Having thus met with evidence—striking at least, if not decisive,—of a tendency to aggregation into streams, let us con- sider if, in other parts of the heavens, similar traces may not be observable. We traced a stream from Scorpio towards Orion, and so round in a spiral to the Nubecule. Let us now return to Scorpio, and trace the stream (if any appear) in the contrary direction. Now although over the northern hemisphere star- streams are not nearly so marked as over the southern, yet there appears a decided indication of stream-formation along Serpens and Corona over the group on the left hand of Bootes to the Great Bear. A branch of this stream, starting from Corona, traverses the body of Bootes, Berenice’s Hair, the Sickle in Leo, the Beebive in Cancer, passing over Castor and Pollux in Gemini, towards Capella. A branch from the feet of Gemini passes over Canis Minor, along Hydra (so named doubtless from the obvious tendency to stream-formation along the length of this constellation), and so to the right claw of Scorpio. Four small stars of Hydrus are indicated in Fig. 2 poem Scorpio and Centaurus near the upper edge of the

gure.

One other remarkable congeries of stars is to be mentioned.

Notes on Star-Streams. 9

From the northern part of the Milky Way there will be noticed a projection towards the north pole from the head of Cepheus. This projection seems to merge itself in a complex convolution of stars forming the ancient constellation Draco, which doubt- less included the ancient (but probably less ancient) constella- tion Ursa Minor. After following the convolutions of Draco, we reach the bright stars Alwaid and Htanin (8 and ¥) of this constellation, and thence the stream passes to Lyra, where it seems to divide into two, one passing through Hercules, the other along Aquila, and curving upwards (see Fig. 1) into the remarkable group Delphinus.

The streams here considered, include every conspicuous star in the heavens. But the question will at once suggest itself, whether we have not been following a merely fanciful scheme, whether all these apparent streams might not very well be supposed to result from mere accident. Now, from experi- ments | have made, I am inclined to believe that in any chance distribution of points over a surface, the chance against the occurrence of a single stream so marked as that which les (in part) along the back of Grus, or (to take one within our figure) as the curved stream of bright stars along Scorpio, is very great indeed. Iam certain that the occurrence of many such streams is altogether improbable. And wherever one observes a tendency to stream-formation in objects apparently distributed wholly by chance, one is led to suspect, and thence often to detect the operation of law. I will take an illustration, very homely perhaps, but which will serve admirably to explain my meaning. In soapy water, left in a basin after washing, there will often be noticed a tendency to the formation of spiral whorls on the surface. In other cases there may be no spirality, but still a tendency to stream-formation. Now, in this case, it is easy to see, that the curved bottom of the basin has assisted to generate streams in the water, either circulating in one direction, or opposing and modifying each other’s effects, according to the accidental character of the disturbance given to the water in the process of washing.* Here, of course, there can be no doubt of the cause of the observed pheno- mena; and I believe that in every case in which even a single marked stream is seen in any congeries of spots or points, a little consideration will suggest a regulating cause to which the peculiarity may be referred.

It is hardly necessary to say that, if the stream-formation

* Sometimes, a singular regularity of curvature is noticed, and a spiral is formed closely resembling in configuration some of the great spiral nebule, as drawn by Lord Rosse, so that one is tempted to see in the centrifugal tendency of the disturbed water, and the centripetal effects caused by reflection from the basin’s

surface, causes which may in some sense illustrate the laws operating in wider domains of space.

10 Notes on Star-Streams.

I have indicated is considered to be really referable toa systematic distribution, the theory of a stratum of stars dis- tributed with any approach to uniformity, either as respects magnitude or distance must be abandoned. It seems to me to be also quite clear that the immense extent of the galaxy as compared with the distances of the ‘lucid’ stars from us, could no longer be maintained. On this last point we have other evidence, which I will briefly consider.

First, there is the evidence afforded by clusterings in the Milky Way. I will select one which is well known to every telescopist, namely, the magnificent cluster on the sword-hand of Perseus. No doubt can be entertained that this cluster belongs to the galactic nebula, that is, that it is not an external cluster: the evidence from the configuration of the spot and from the position it occupies, is he on this point. Now, within this spot, which shows no stars to the naked eye, a telescope of moderate power reveals a multitude of brilliant stars, the brightest of which are of about the seventh magnitude. Around these there still appears a milky unresolved light. If a telescope of higher power be applied, more stars are seen, and around these there still remains a nebulous light. Increase power until the whole field blazes with almost unbearable light, yet still there remains an unresolved background. “The illustrious Herschel ”’ says Professor Nichol, “penetrated, on one occasion,

into this spot, until he found himself among depths, whose’

heht could not have reached him in much less than 4000 years; no marvel that he withdrew from the pursuit, conceiving that such abysses must be endless.”” It is precisely this view that I wish to controvert. And I think it is no difficult matter to show at least a probability agamst the supposition that the milky light in the spot is removed at avast distance behind the stars of the seventh magnitude seen in the same field.

The supposition amounts, in fact, to the highly improbable view that we are looking here at a range of stars extending in a cylindrical stratum directly from the eye—a stratum whose section is So very minute in comparison with its breadth, that, whereas the whole field within which the spot is included is but small, the distance separating the nearest parts of the group from the far thest, is equivalent to the immense distance sup- posed to separate ‘the sphere of seventh magnitude stars from the extreme limits of our galaxy. And the oreat improbability of this view is yet further increased, when it is observed that within this spot there is to be seen a very marked tendency to the formation of minor streams, around which the milky hght seems to cling. It seems, therefore, wholly improbable that the cluster really has that indefinite longitudinal extension suggested by Professor Nichol; I think, “therefore, that the

Notes on Star-Streams. 11

milky light comes from orbs really smaller than the seventh magnitude stars in the same field, and clustering round these stars in reality as well as in appearance.

The observations applied to this spot may be extended to all clusters of globular form; and where a cluster is not globu- lar in form, but exhibits, on examination, either (1) any ten- dency within its bounds to stream-formation, or (2) a uniform increase in density as we proceed from any part of the circum- ference towards the centre, it appears wholly inconceivable that the apparent cluster is—not really a cluster, but—a long range of stars extending to an enormous distance directly from the eye of the observer. When, in such a case, many stars of the higher magnitudes appear within the cluster, we seem compelled to admit the probability that they belong to it; and, In any case, we cannot assign to the farthest parts of the cluster a distance greatly exceeding (proportionally) that of the nearest parts.

Of a like character is the evidence afforded by narrow streams and necks within the galactic circle. If we consider the convolutions over Scorpio, it will seem highly improbable that im each of these we see, not a real convolution or stream, but the edge of a roll of stars. For instance, if a spiral roll of paper be viewed from any point taken at random, the chances are thousands to one against its appearing as a spiral curve, and, of course, the chance against several such rolls so appearing is indefinitely greater. The fact that we are assumed to be not very far from the supposed mean plane of the Milky Way would partly remove the difficulty here considered, if it were not that the thickness and extent of the stratum, as compared with the distances of the lucid stars must necessarily be supposed so very great, on the assumption of any approach to uniformity of distribution.

Evidence pointing the same way is afforded by circular apertures in the galaxy, or indeed by apertures of other forms, since a moment’s inspection of Figs. 3 and 5 will show the improbability of any tunnelling (so to speak) through the star stratum, being so situate as to be discernible from 8. Another peculiarity of these cavities is also noticeable ; whereas on the borders of every one there are many lucid stars, or in some cases two or three very bright stars, within the cavity there is a marked paucity of stars. This phenomenon seems to indi- cate a much closer connection between the brighter stars, and the milky light beyond, than is supposed in the stratum theory. One can hardly conceive the phenomenon to be wholly acci- dental.

There are some other points on which I would fain dwell, but space will not permit me. I may, perhaps, on another

12 Notes on Star-Streams.

occasion, return to the consideration of the subject. For the present, I will merely note that there are peculiarities in the distribution of double and multiple stars, in the position im which temporary stars have made their appearance, and in the distribution of nebule, which seem very worthy of notice.

One point, however, immediately connected with my sub- ject, remains to be mentioned. I have traced streams of stars more conspicuous than those forming the Milky Way: we have also evidence of streams of light yet more delicate and eva- nescent than the light of our galaxy. In Sir John Herschel’s great work on the southern skies, he notes the frequent recur- rence of an exceedingly delicate and uniform dotting, or stip- pling of the field of view by points of light too small to admit of any one being steadily or fully examined, and too numerous for counting, were it possible so to view them.” In thirty-seven places he detected this remarkable and significant phenomenon ; a phenomenon so faint, that he says, ‘The idea of illusion has continually arisen subsequently ;’ an idea well befitting the modesty of the philosophic observer, but which those who appreciate Sir John Herschel’s skill as an observer will be very unwilling to accept. As Professor Nichol remarks, It is enough to read from Herschel’s note-book—‘ I feel satisfied the stippling is no illusion, as its dark mottling moves with the stars as I move the tube to and fro’—to feel convinced that the phenomenon is real.” Now, a remarkable fact con- nected with those observations is, that when Sir J. Herschel marked down in a star-chart the places in which he had de- tected this nebulous appearance, he found that, with the exception of three, which appeared outlying and disconnected, they formed several distinct but continuous streams.”

Japan and its Currency. 13

JAPAN, AND ITS CURRENCY.

BY JOSEPH NEWTON, H. M. MINT.

Ir is highly probable, if it be not morally certain, that, ere many years shall have passed away, the thick veil of mystery which has so long, and so effectually concealed from us an exact knowledge of the laws which govern, and the peculiar habits which distinguish the inhabitants of Japan, will be removed. Such a consummation we believe must result from the more enlightened, and, it may also be said, far more rational mode of conducting negotiations with the authorities of that strange empire of islands which now prevails. This country, indeed, is particularly fortunate at present in having as its chief representative at the Court of the Tycoon so able a diplomatist, and so dispassionate a man as Sir Rutherford Alcock. If it be true that—

‘¢ A wise physician skilled our woes to heal, Is more than armies for the public weal,”

it is equally certain that a talented and honest statesman may contribute largely to the promotion of the social and com- mercial intercourse, and the happiness of nations. In time past it has been too much the custom for ambassadors and others, while dressed ina little brief authority,” to play very “fantastic tricks” indeed with those to whom they were accredited, and thus to create, or widen breaches instead of promoting peace and confidence. ‘he fact, which is sustained by abundant evidence, has had the effeet, in too many instances, of preventing instead of aiding the extension of commerce, and thereby arresting the progress of civilization and of Christianity itself.

The manner in which our intercommunication with the Japanese has been conducted during the last few years is happily not amenable to any such painful criticism. Con- fidence, it has been truly asserted, is a plant of slow growth,” but it appears to be one in process of rapid cultivation between Hngland and Japan, and we all know the value of the pro- duction when fully matured. At this moment, there are in this country many inteligent young Japanese, some of them of noble birth, and destined for future legislators, under course of educating and training in Great Britain, whilst several of the vexatious restrictions which heretofore prevented the admission of Englishmen into Japan have disappeared. In short, a quiet and gradual, yet sure and steady revolution m

14 Japan and its Currency.

these directions is going on, and its course is fraught wiih advantage to the peoples of both countries.

In the magnificent exhibition of fruits and flowers of the world’s industrial gardens, now in full display at Paris, a con- siderable section is devoted to the exposition of articles from Japan. ‘This forms, indeed, one of the most interesting portions of the wondrous show, and the ingenuity and originality mani- fested by the artists and workpeople who have prepared the articles are extraordinary. The fact of their transmitting so much valuable property to France, and taking so palpable an interest in the success of the gigantic undertaking, is in itself a strong proof that the Japanese are becoming fully alive to the advantages of international traffic; as it certainly proves that the councils of the Tycoon are not now under the influ- ence of the old spirit of exclusiveness. Taking this, with other signs and portents of a similar character into account, there can. be little danger in predicting that closer and far more familiar relations